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The flower of Hypericum calycinum, which appears uniformly yellow to humans, bears a UV pattern, presumably visible to insects. Two categories of pigments, flavonoids and dearomatized isoprenylated phloroglucinols (DIPs), are responsible for the UV demarcations of this flower. Flavonoids had been shown previously to function as floral UV pigments, but DIPs(More)
The arctiid moth Utetheisa ornatrix is protected against predation by pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) that it sequesters as a larva from its food plant. Earlier work had shown that males transmit PA to the female with the sperm package and that the female bestows part of this gift on the eggs, protecting these against predation as a result. We now show that(More)
The mint plant, Teucrium marum (family Labiatae), sometimes called cat thyme, contains two methylcyclopentanoid monoterpenes, dolichodial and teucrein. The former compound is potently anti-insectan. It is repellent to ants (Monomorium pharaonis) and induces preening reflexes in flies (Phormia regina) and cockroaches (Periplaneta americana). Evidence is(More)
The plant Mentzelia pumila (family Loasaceae) has leaves and stems densely covered with tiny hooked trichomes. The structures entrap and kill insects and therefore are most probably protective. But they are also maladaptive in that they incapacitate a coccinellid beetle (Hippodamia convergens) that preys upon an aphid enemy (Macrosiphum mentzeliae) of the(More)
The carabid beetle Galerita lecontei has a pair of abdominal defensive glands that secrete a mixture of formic acid, acetic acid, and lipophilic components (long-chain hydrocarbons and esters). Formic acid, at the concentration of 80%, is the principal constituent. The beetle ejects the secretion as a spray, which it aims accurately toward parts of the body(More)
The bombardier beetle Metrius contractus discharges its defensive secretion as a froth that clings to its body. When attacked from the rear, it allows the froth to build up over the gland openings near the abdominal tip; when attacked from the front, it conveys the secretion forwards along special elytral tracks. M. contractus has two-chambered defensive(More)
The larva of the green lacewing Chrysopa slossonae lives in colonies of the wooly alder aphid Prociphilus tesselatus upon which it feeds. It disguises itself as its prey by plucking some of the waxy "wool" from the bodies of the aphids and applying this material to its own back. The investiture protects it from assault by the ants that ordinarily "shepherd"(More)
The green lacewing Ceraeochrysa smithi (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae), like other members of its family, lays its eggs on stalks, but it is unusual in that it coats these stalks with droplets of an oily fluid. The liquid consists of a mixture of fatty acids, an ester, and a series of straight-chain aldehydes. Relative to the eggs of a congeneric chrysopid that(More)
The defensive glandular apparatus of primitive bombardier beetles of the tribe Crepidogastrini (Carabidae) is described for the first time. As exemplified by two African species (Crepidogaster ambreana and C. atrata), the apparatus conforms to the basic bombardier plan, in that the glands are bicompartmented and the secretion is quinonoid (it contains(More)
Neuromelanin (NM) is a peculiar biochemical component of several neurons in the Substantia Nigra (SN), the target area of the degenerative process in Parkinson Disease (PD). SN NM has peculiarities as to its composition and an impressive capacity of chelating metals, iron in particular, but not exclusively. Gaining insights into the structural and(More)