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AIMS Mice and nonhuman primates administered with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) represent elective experimental models of Parkinsonism, in which degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway is associated with prominent neuroinflammation, characterized by activated microglia and astrocytes in both substantia nigra (SN) and(More)
Postganglionic nerve crush of the avian ciliary ganglion induces detachment of preganglionic terminals from the soma of the injured ciliary neurons, followed by reattachment at about the same time that the postganglionic axons regenerate to their targets. In order to determine the role played by cell adhesion molecules in this response, we have studied(More)
Spatial memory formation is a dynamic process requiring a series of cellular and molecular steps, such as gene expression and protein translation, leading to morphological changes that have been envisaged as the structural bases for the engram. Despite the role suggested for medial temporal lobe plasticity in spatial memory, recent behavioral observations(More)
Ciliary and choroid neurons of the avian ciliary ganglion innervate different targets in the eye bulb. By light microscopic immunocytochemistry, somatostatin (SOM) has been localized to a subset of ganglionic neurons believed to be, for the most part, choroid neurons. Although several studies have been published on the physiology, afferent and efferent(More)
The endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) has many neurovascular activities. However, it is not yet clear how AEA can be metabolized at the neurovascular interface, and how it can move through the vascular and the cerebral compartments. The results reported in this article show that isolated bovine brain microvessels, an ex vivo model of the blood-brain barrier,(More)
The brain needs mechanisms able to correlate plastic changes with local circuit activity and internal functional states. At the cerebellum input stage, uncontrolled induction of long-term potentiation or depression (LTP or LTD) between mossy fibres and granule cells can saturate synaptic capacity and impair cerebellar functioning, which suggests that(More)
To clarify further the functional anatomy of the avian choroid, including its innervation, 12 adult White-Leghorn chickens were studied by standard electron microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy with somatostatin antibody. The endothelial cells of the blood vessels in the choriocapillaris have fenestrations only facing the retina, while the nuclei are(More)
We have previously shown that intraganglionic synapse disassembly consequent on superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neuron axotomy was preceded by the loss of the dystroglycan beta subunit (beta-DG) localized at the postsynaptic specializations. Because DG, a transmembrane molecular complex bridging the extracellular matrix to the cortical cytoskeleton, could(More)
PURPOSE To clarify the fine structure of the avian choroid and thus help explain the mechanisms for normal and abnormal eye function and growth. METHODS Eyes from normal chickens and from experimental chickens subjected to unilateral paracentesis were fixed either by perfusion or in situ, with or without post-fixation by microwave irradiation, and then(More)
In the ciliary ganglion of the chicken and quail, somatostatin (SOM) is an exclusive marker for parasympathetic postganglionic neurons innervating the choroid. A second parasympathetic pathway projecting to the choroid originates from the pterygopalatine ganglion. The aim of this study was to investigate SOM immunoreactivity in the pterygopalatine ganglion(More)