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Insulin from the beta-cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans controls energy homeostasis in vertebrates, and its deficiency causes diabetes mellitus. During embryonic development, the transcription factor neurogenin 3 (Neurog3) initiates the differentiation of the beta-cells and other islet cell types from pancreatic endoderm, but the genetic program(More)
The specialized endocrine and exocrine cells of the pancreas originally derive from a pool of apparently identical cells in the early gut endoderm. Serial changes in their gene expression program, controlled by a hierarchy of pancreatic transcription factors, direct this progression from multipotent progenitor cell to mature pancreatic cell. When the cells(More)
The earliest endocrine cells in the developing pancreas make glucagon and are described as alpha cells. We show here that these cells express islet amyloid polypeptide and prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3), proteins that are not expressed by mature alpha cells, but are found in beta cells. PC1/3 converts proglucagon to the functionally distinct hormones(More)
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