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Identifying genetic variants influencing human brain structures may reveal new biological mechanisms underlying cognition and neuropsychiatric illness. The volume of the hippocampus is a biomarker of incipient Alzheimer's disease and is reduced in schizophrenia, major depression and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Whereas many brain imaging phenotypes are(More)
Brain tissue segmentation by conventional threshold-based techniques may have limited accuracy and repeatability in older subjects. We present a new multispectral magnetic resonance (MR) image analysis approach for segmenting normal and abnormal brain tissue, including white matter lesions (WMLs). We modulated two 1.5T MR sequences in the red/green colour(More)
OBJECTIVES Increased participation in leisure and physical activities may be cognitively protective. Whether activity might protect the integrity of the brain's white matter, or reduce atrophy and white matter lesion (WML) load, was examined in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (n = 691), a longitudinal study of aging. METHODS Associations are presented(More)
RATIONALE As the population of the world ages, age-related cognitive decline is becoming an ever-increasing problem. However, the changes in brain structure that accompany normal aging, and the role they play in cognitive decline, remain to be fully elucidated. AIMS This study aims to characterize changes in brain structure in old age, and to investigate(More)
The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging(More)
The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions,(More)
A novel analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans based on multispectral image fusion was used to quantify iron deposits in basal ganglia and microbleeds in 143 nondemented subjects of the generally healthy Lothian Birth Cohort, who were tested for general cognitive ability (intelligence) at mean ages of 11, 70, and 72 years. Possessing more iron(More)
There is increasing recognition of the importance of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in aging, dementia, stroke and multiple sclerosis in addition to more commonly-studied pathologies such as tumors. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) is a method for studying BBB disruption in vivo. We review pathologies studied, scanning protocols and data(More)
White matter loss, ventricular enlargement and white matter lesions are common findings on brain scans of older subjects. Accurate assessment of these different features is therefore essential for normal aging research. Recently, we developed a novel unsupervised classification method, named 'Multispectral Coloring Modulation and Variance Identification'(More)
White matter hyperintensities accumulate with age and occur in patients with stroke, but their pathogenesis is poorly understood. We measured multiple magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers of tissue integrity in normal-appearing white matter and white matter hyperintensities in patients with mild stroke, to improve understanding of white matter(More)