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The cellular toxicity of three types of carbon nanoparticles, namely HiPco single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), arc discharge SWCNT and Printex 90 carbon black nanoparticles, was studied on three different cell models including the human alveolar carcinoma epithelial cell line (A549), the normal human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) and the(More)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall sensitivity and applicability of a number of bioassays representing multiple trophic levels, for the preliminary ecotoxicological screening (Tier I) of estuarine sediments. Chemical analyses were conducted on sediments from all sampling sites to assist in interpreting results. As sediment is an(More)
This paper describes the in vitro cytotoxicity assessment of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) on A549 cells, a human lung cell line. Cellular viability was determined using the alamar blue (AB), neutral red (NR) and MTT assays, which evaluated metabolic, lysosomal and mitochondrial activity respectively. In addition, the total protein content of the(More)
Single-walled carbon nanotubes have gained enormous popularity due to a variety of potential applications which will ultimately lead to increased human and environmental exposure to these nanoparticles. This study was carried out in order to evaluate the inflammatory response of immortalised and primary human lung epithelial cells (A549 and NHBE) to(More)
Due to their large specific surface area, the potential of nanoparticles to be highly reactive and to induce oxidative stress is particularly high. In addition, some types of nanoparticles contain transition metals as trace impurities which are known to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in biological systems. This study investigates the potential of(More)
The ability of two types of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), namely Arc Discharge (AD) and HiPco single walled carbon nanotubes, to induce an indirect cytotoxicity in A549 lung cells by means of medium depletion was investigated. The nanotubes were dispersed in a commercial cell culture medium and subsequently removed by centrifugation and(More)
Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer nanoparticles have been demonstrated to elicit a well defined cytotoxicological response from mammalian cell lines, the response increasing systematically with dendrimer generation and number of surface amino groups. In this work, using generation G4, G5, and G6 dendrimers, this systematic response is furthermore(More)
The utilisation of fish cell lines has proven to be a valuable, rapid and cost-effective tool in the ecotoxicological assessment of chemicals and environmental samples. The main objective of this study was to investigate the value of multiple endpoint measurements in evaluating the cytotoxicity of three divalent zinc salts in three established fish cell(More)
The immunotoxicity of three generations of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers (G-4, G-5 and G-6) was evaluated in mouse macrophage cells in vitro. Using the Alamar blue and MTT assays, a generation dependent cytotoxicity of the PAMAM dendrimers was found whereby G-6 > G-5 > G-4. The toxic response of the PAMAM dendrimers correlated well with the number of(More)
Titanium dioxide (TiO2), also known as titanium (IV) oxide or anatase, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium. It is also one of the most commercially used form. To date, no parameter has been set for the average ambient air concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles (NP) by any regulatory agency. Previously conducted studies had established these(More)