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The heterochromatic state of the Drosophila Y chromosome has made the cloning and identification of Y-linked genes a challenging process. Here, we report application of a procedure to identify Y-linked gene fragments from the unmapped residue of the whole genome sequencing effort. Previously identified Y-linked genes appear in sequenced scaffolds as(More)
In Drosophila, genes expressed in males tend to accumulate on autosomes and are underrepresented on the X chromosome. In particular, genes expressed in testis have been observed to frequently relocate from the X chromosome to the autosomes. The inactivation of X-linked genes during male meiosis (i.e., meiotic sex chromosome inactivation-MSCI) was first(More)
In Drosophila melanogaster, there is an excess of genes duplicated by retroposition from the X chromosome to the autosomes. Most of those retrogenes that originated on the X chromosome have testis expression pattern. These observations could be explained by natural selection favoring genes that avoided spermatogenesis X inactivation or by sexual(More)
We investigated the correlation between the chromosomal location and age distribution of new male-biased genes formed by duplications via DNA intermediates (DNA-level) or by de novo origination in Drosophila. Our genome-wide analysis revealed an excess of young X-linked male-biased genes. The proportion of X-linked male-biased genes then diminishes through(More)
How the human brain evolved has attracted tremendous interests for decades. Motivated by case studies of primate-specific genes implicated in brain function, we examined whether or not the young genes, those emerging genome-wide in the lineages specific to the primates or rodents, showed distinct spatial and temporal patterns of transcription compared to(More)
Mammalian X chromosomes evolved under various mechanisms including sexual antagonism, the faster-X process, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). These forces may contribute to nonrandom chromosomal distribution of sex-biased genes. In order to understand the evolution of gene content on the X chromosome and autosome under these forces, we dated(More)
New genes have frequently formed and spread to fixation in a wide variety of organisms, constituting abundant sets of lineage-specific genes. It was recently reported that an excess of primate-specific and human-specific genes were upregulated in the brains of fetuses and infants, and especially in the prefrontal cortex, which is involved in cognition.(More)
Extensive gene expression during meiosis is a hallmark of spermatogenesis. Although it was generally accepted that RNA transcription ceases during meiosis, recent observations suggest that some transcription occurs in postmeiosis. To further resolve this issue, we provide direct evidence for the de novo transcription of RNA during the postmeiotic phases.(More)
Exon-shuffling is an important mechanism accounting for the origin of many new proteins in eukaryotes. However, its role in the creation of proteins in the ancestor of prokaryotes and eukaryotes is still debatable. Excess of symmetric exons is thought to represent evidence for exon-shuffling since the exchange of exons flanked by introns of the same phase(More)
Genes are perpetually added to and deleted from genomes during evolution. Thus, it is important to understand how new genes are formed and how they evolve to be critical components of the genetic systems that determine the biological diversity of life. Two decades of effort have shed light on the process of new gene origination and have contributed to an(More)