Maria C. Shoshan

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DNA damage is believed to be the main cause of the antiproliferative effect of cisplatin, a cornerstone agent in anticancer therapy. However, cisplatin can be expected to react also with nucleophiles other than DNA. Using enucleated cells (cytoplasts) we demonstrate here that cisplatin-induced apoptotic signaling may occur independently of DNA damage.(More)
Cytokeratins are released from carcinoma cells by unclear mechanisms and are commonly used serum tumor markers (TPA, TPS, and CYFRA 21-1). We here report that soluble cytokeratin-18 (CK18) is released from human carcinoma cells during cell death. During necrosis, the cytosolic pool of soluble CK18 was released, whereas apoptosis was associated with(More)
Calpain is a ubiquitous protease with potential involvement in apoptosis. We report that in human melanoma cells, cisplatin-induced calpain activation occurs early in apoptosis. Calpain activation and subsequent apoptosis were inhibited by calpeptin and PD150606, two calpain inhibitors with different modes of action. Furthermore, cisplatin induced cleavage(More)
Cisplatin is a broad-spectrum anticancer drug that is also widely used in experimental studies on DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Induction of apoptosis within 24-48 hr requires cisplatin concentrations that are at least one order of magnitude higher than the IC(50). Here, we show that such high, apoptosis-inducing cisplatin concentrations induce cellular(More)
PURPOSE With a widening arsenal of cancer therapies available, it is important to develop therapy-specific predictive markers and methods to rapidly assess treatment efficacy. We here evaluated the use of cytokeratin-18 (CK18) as a serum biomarker for monitoring chemotherapy-induced cell death in breast cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Different molecular(More)
We have developed an apoptosis assay based on measurement of a neoepitope of cytokeratin-18 (CK18-Asp396) exposed after caspase-cleavage and detected by the monoclonal antibody M30. The total amount of caspase-cleaved CK18 which has accumulated in cells and tissue culture media during apoptosis is measured by ELISA. The sensitivity is sufficient for use in(More)
The anthracyclin doxorubicin (DXR) is a major antitumor agent known to cause cellular damage via a number of mechanisms including free radical formation and inhibition of topoisomerase II. It is not clear, however, how the subsequent lesions may lead to the apoptotic death of the cell. We have here examined the effects of DXR on activation of pro-apoptotic(More)
Here, we identified caspase-2, protein kinase C (PKC)delta, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) as key components of the doxorubicin-induced apoptotic cascade. Using cells stably transfected with an antisense construct for caspase-2 (AS2) as well as a chemical caspase-2 inhibitor, we demonstrate that caspase-2 is required in doxorubicin-induced apoptosis.(More)
We have previously shown that one of the most potent rodent hepatocarcinogens, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), induces apoptosis in human HepG2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In this study we have investigated the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondria, and caspase-9 in PFOA-induced apoptosis. Treatment with 200 and 400(More)