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Ammonia saturation constants were determined for representative pure cultures of predominant, anaerobic, fermentative rumen bacteria. Based on growth experiments with ammonia limited continuous cultures, average estimates for ammonia saturation constants of Bacteroides amylophillus and Bacteroides ruminicola were 10.5 and 23.5 microM ammonia-nitrogen,(More)
Medium 10 (M10), developed for rumen bacteria and containing small amounts of sugars, starch, volatile fatty acids, hemin, Trypticase, yeast extract, cysteine, and sulfide, plus agar, minerals and CO(2)-HCO(3)-buffer, was used with the Hungate anaerobic method as a basal medium to evaluate the efficacy of various ingredients. Three-day-old colony counts(More)
Mixed bacterial cultures derived from the rumen were grown in a remen fluid medium in a chemostat at three dilution rates (.02, .06, and .12 per h), each at four growth-limiting glucose concentrations (5.8, 9.9, 12.7, and 25.0 mM). Microscopic observations indicated that a relatively complex mixture of bacterial species was maintained and proportions of(More)
A new genus and species of a nonmotile gram-negative rod, Syntrophobacter wolinii, is the first bacterium described which degrades propionate only in coculture with an H(2)-using organism and in the absence of light or exogenous electron acceptors such as O(2), sulfate, or nitrate. It was isolated from methanogenic enrichments from an anaerobic municipal(More)
Differential carbohydrate media and anaerobic replica plating techniques were used to assess the degrees of diurnal variations in the direct and viable cell counts as well as the carbohydrate-specific subgroups within the mixed rumen bacterial populations in cattle fed maintenance (metabolizable energy) levels of either a high-forage or a high-concentrate(More)
Studies of three reference strains of Bacteroides fragilis subsp. fragilis showed that they grow well in a minimal defined medium containing glucose, hemin, vitamin B(12), minerals, bicarbonate-carbon dioxide buffer, NH(4)Cl, and sulfide. The vitamin B(12) requirement of 0.1 ng/ml was replaced with 7.5 mug of methionine. Cysteine or sulfide was an excellent(More)
Growth characteristics of Eubacterium limosum and Acetobacterium woodii during one-carbon-compound utilization were investigated. E. limosum RF grew with formate as the sole energy source. Formate also replaced a requirement for CO2 during growth with methanol. Growth with methanol required either rumen fluid, yeast extract, or acetate, but their effects(More)
The effect of pH on rumen fermentation and microbial population was studied in a continuously cultured rumen ecosystem. A marked decrease in the production of volatile fatty acids and methane from alfalfa hay occurred when the cultures were maintained at pH values below 6.0. The decrease in acetate and methane production was greater than that of propionate(More)
After enrichment from Chinese rural anaerobic digestor sludge, anaerobic, sporing and nonsporing, saturated fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria were isolated as cocultures with H2- and formate-utilizing Methanospirillum hungatei or Desulfovibrio sp. strain G-11. The syntrophs degraded C4 to C8 saturated fatty acids, including isobutyrate and(More)