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Both genetic and environmental factors display low or modest associations with multiple sclerosis. Hypothetically, gene-environment interactions may exert much stronger effects. In this study, we investigated potential interactions between genetic risk factors and smoking in relation to risk of developing multiple sclerosis. A population-based case-control(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of tobacco smoking and Swedish snuff use on the risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS A population-based case-control study was performed in Sweden, using incident cases of MS (902 cases and 1,855 controls). A case was defined as a subject from the study base who had received a(More)
OBJECTIVE Low vitamin D status at birth may be associated with risk of adult onset multiple sclerosis, but this link has not been studied directly. We assessed the relation between neonatal vitamin D concentrations, measured in stored blood samples, and risk of multiple sclerosis. METHODS This was a population-based case-control study in Sweden including(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to estimate the causal effect of low serum 25(OH)D on multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility that is not confounded by environmental or lifestyle factors or subject to reverse causality. METHODS We conducted mendelian randomization (MR) analyses using an instrumental variable (IV) comprising 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms found to(More)
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