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Both genetic and environmental factors display low or modest associations with multiple sclerosis. Hypothetically, gene-environment interactions may exert much stronger effects. In this study, we investigated potential interactions between genetic risk factors and smoking in relation to risk of developing multiple sclerosis. A population-based case-control(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of tobacco smoking and Swedish snuff use on the risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS A population-based case-control study was performed in Sweden, using incident cases of MS (902 cases and 1,855 controls). A case was defined as a subject from the study base who had received a(More)
BACKGROUND Tobacco smoking has consistently been associated with increased risk for multiple sclerosis. However, data has been inconsistent regarding the influence of passive smoking. OBJECTIVE The aim was to estimate the influence of passive smoking on the risk for multiple sclerosis. METHODS A population-based case-control study using incident cases(More)
BACKGROUND   Both insufficient exposure to sunlight and vitamin D deficiency have been associated with an increased risk for multiple sclerosis (MS). An interaction between human leukocyte antigen HLA-DRB1*15 and vitamin D in MS was recently proposed. We investigated the association between previous exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), vitamin D status(More)
BACKGROUND High vitamin D levels have been associated with a decreased risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS). The most important source of dietary vitamin D is fatty fish. OBJECTIVE The objective of this paper is to investigate the association between fish consumption and the risk of MS, including the interaction between fish intake and ultraviolet(More)
OBJECTIVE Low vitamin D status at birth may be associated with risk of adult onset multiple sclerosis, but this link has not been studied directly. We assessed the relation between neonatal vitamin D concentrations, measured in stored blood samples, and risk of multiple sclerosis. METHODS This was a population-based case-control study in Sweden including(More)
Multiple sclerosis, MS (OMIM No. 126200), is a complex inflammatory disease that is characterized by lesions in the central nervous system. Both genes and other environmental factors influence disease susceptibility. One of the environmental factors that has been implicated in MS and autoimmune disease, such as type 1 diabetes, is vitamin D deficiency, in(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to estimate the causal effect of low serum 25(OH)D on multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility that is not confounded by environmental or lifestyle factors or subject to reverse causality. METHODS We conducted mendelian randomization (MR) analyses using an instrumental variable (IV) comprising 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms found to(More)
Epidemiological typing of Streptococcus pneumoniae is essential to determine strain relatedness and also to trace resistant clones. The novel Box A PCR assay was used for characterization of S. pneumoniae isolates from two Scandinavian countries and to compare those from India on the Asian continent. In addition, the assay was employed to determine the(More)
OBJECTIVE To utilize Mendelian randomization to estimate the causal association between low serum vitamin D concentrations, increased body mass index (BMI), and pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) using genetic risk scores (GRS). METHODS We constructed an instrumental variable for vitamin D (vitD GRS) by computing a GRS for 3 genetic variants(More)
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