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Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) have become major causes of morbidity and mortality among highly immunocompromised patients. Authoritative consensus criteria to diagnose IFD have been useful in establishing eligibility criteria for antifungal trials. There is an important need for generation of consensus definitions of outcomes of IFD that will form a(More)
The basidiomycetous yeast Cryptococcus neoformans is an important human fungal pathogen. Two varieties, C. neoformans var. neoformans and C. neoformans var. gattii, have been identified. Both are heterothallic with two mating types, MATa and MATalpha. Some rare isolates are self-fertile and are considered occasional diploid or aneuploid strains. In the(More)
The purpose of this survey was to systematically collect data on individuals with histoplasmosis in Europe over a 5-year period (from January 1995 to December 1999). This included information on where and how the infection was acquired, the patient's risk factors, the causative organism, how the infection was diagnosed and what therapy the patients(More)
This communication describes the consensus multi-locus typing scheme established by the Cryptococcal Working Group I (Genotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii) of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM) using seven unlinked genetic loci for global strain genotyping. These genetic loci include the housekeeping genes(More)
During a European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) prospective survey of cryptococcosis in Europe (from July 1997 to December 1999) 655 cases were reported from 17 countries; 565 of the completed questionnaires were evaluable. Cryptococcosis was associated with HIV infection in 77% of cases (range 57.5-94%). Assessment of the laboratory data(More)
A total of 356 clinical isolates of the encapsulated basidiomycetous fungus Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans, obtained from Australia, Argentina, Brazil, India, Italy, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, South Africa, Thailand and the USA, were analyzed to lay the basis for a comprehensive evaluation of the global genetic structure of C. neoformans. Two(More)
Cryptococcus neoformans strains isolated from 207 HIV positive and HIV negative patients hospitalized in Northern Italy were serotyped by slide agglutination. One Brazilian HIV negative woman was infected by var. gattii serotype B and all the other patients by var. neoformans, serotype D in 71%, serotype A in 24.6% and serotype AD in 3.4%. No difference was(More)
One hundred and twenty-six patients were treated for 137 episodes of fungal infection with liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) at 43 investigational centres. Among the patients were 72 with malignancies, 17 organ transplant recipients, 20 patients with immunological disorders and 17 others. AmBisome treatment was instituted after toxicity from previous(More)
The aims of the study were to analyze the clinical and epidemiological characteristics and treatments for patients who developed zygomycosis enrolled in Italy during the European Confederation of Medical Mycology of medical mycology survey. This prospective multicenter study was performed between 2004 and 2007 at 49 italian Departments. 60 cases of(More)
Recent attempts to characterise the hybrid strains of Cryptococcus neoformans have led to the identification of a cryptic population of hybrid strains ('H strains') with double DNA content but only a single mating-type allele. To verify a set of hypotheses concerning their origin, we investigated 14 previously isolated H strains and ten F1-progeny strains(More)