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Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from cerebral catecholamine deficiency. Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency has been reported in fewer than 40 patients worldwide. To recapitulate all available evidence on clinical phenotypes and rational diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for this devastating, but treatable,(More)
Caveolins are the principal protein components of caveolae, invaginations of the plasma membrane involved in cell signaling and trafficking. Caveolin-3 (Cav-3) is the muscle-specific isoform of the caveolin family and mutations in the CAV3 gene lead to a large group of neuromuscular disorders. In unrelated patients, we identified two distinct CAV3 mutations(More)
BACKGROUND Hunter disease is a rare X-linked mucopolysaccharidosis. Despite frequent neurological involvement, characterizing the severe phenotype, neuroimaging studies are scarce. OBJECTIVES To determine frequency and severity of neuroradiological mucopolysaccharidosis-related features; to correlate them with clinical phenotype; to evaluate their natural(More)
ATPase family AAA-domain containing protein 3A (ATAD3A) is a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial membrane protein implicated in mitochondrial dynamics, nucleoid organization, protein translation, cell growth, and cholesterol metabolism. We identified a recurrent de novo ATAD3A c.1582C>T (p.Arg528Trp) variant by whole-exome sequencing (WES) in five unrelated(More)
BACKGROUND Barth syndrome (BS) is an X-linked infantile-onset cardioskeletal disease characterized by cardiomyopathy, hypotonia, growth delay, neutropenia and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. It is caused by mutations in the TAZ gene encoding tafazzin, a protein involved in the metabolism of cardiolipin, a mitochondrial-specific phospholipid involved in(More)
Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is an autosomal recessive human disease due to mutations in the thymidine phosphorylase (TP) gene. TP enzyme catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of thymidine to thymine and 2-deoxy-D-ribose 1-phosphate. We present evidence that thymidine metabolism is altered in MNGIE. TP activities in buffy(More)
The North Star Ambulatory Assessment is a functional scale specifically designed for ambulant boys affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Recently the 6-minute walk test has also been used as an outcome measure in trials in DMD. The aim of our study was to assess a large cohort of ambulant boys affected by DMD using both North Star Assessment and(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of the study was i) to assess the spectrum of changes over 24 months in ambulant boys affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy, ii) to establish the difference between the first and the second year results and iii) to identify possible early markers of loss of ambulation. METHODS One hundred and thirteen patients (age range 4.1-17, mean(More)
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO), Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) and Pearson syndrome are the three sporadic clinical syndromes classically associated with single large-scale deletions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). PEO plus is a term frequently utilized in the clinical setting to identify patients with PEO and some degree of multisystem involvement,(More)
The POU1F1 gene encodes a transcription factor that is important for the development and differentiation of the cells producing GH, prolactin, and TSH in the anterior pituitary gland. Patients with POU1F1 mutations show a combined pituitary hormone deficiency with low or absent levels of GH, prolactin, and TSH. Fourteen mutations have been reported in the(More)