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BACKGROUND Treatment of sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) and behavioural interventions are the main methods to prevent HIV in developing countries. We aimed to assess the effect of these interventions on incidence of HIV-1 and other sexually-transmitted infections. METHODS We randomly allocated all adults living in 18 communities in rural Uganda to(More)
BACKGROUND An association between HIV-1 and malaria is expected in theory, but has not been convincingly shown in practice. We studied the effects of HIV-1 infection and advancing immunosuppression on falciparum parasitaemia and clinical malaria. METHODS HIV-1-positive and HIV-1-negative adults selected from a population-based cohort in rural Uganda were(More)
RATIONALE Studies suggest that increased breastfeeding rates can provide substantial financial savings, but the scale of such savings in the UK is not known. OBJECTIVE To calculate potential cost savings attributable to increases in breastfeeding rates from the National Health Service perspective. DESIGN AND SETTINGS Cost savings focussed on where(More)
BACKGROUND Breastfeeding promotion is a key child survival strategy. Although there is an extensive scientific basis for its impact on postneonatal mortality, evidence is sparse for its impact on neonatal mortality. OBJECTIVES We sought to assess the contribution of the timing of initiation of breastfeeding to any impact. METHODS This study took(More)
This document has been downloaded from the WHO/CSR Web site. The original cover pages and lists of participants are not included. See The views expressed in documents by named authors are solely the responsibility of those authors. The mention of specific companies or specific manufacturers' products does no imply that they are endorsed or recommended by(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the burden of later disease associated with moderate/late preterm (32-36 weeks) and early term (37-38 weeks) birth. DESIGN Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS). SETTING Longitudinal study of infants born in the United Kingdom between 2000 and 2002. PARTICIPANTS 18,818 infants participated in the(More)
OBJECTIVES To compare the effect of donor breast milk with infant formula in preterm infants. Separate comparisons with formula were made for donor breast milk that was: (1) given as a sole diet; (2) given as a supplement to mother's own breast milk; and (3) fortified with macronutrients and micronutrients. The main outcomes were death, necrotising(More)
BACKGROUND Helminths have profound effects on the immune response, allowing long-term survival of parasites with minimal damage to the host. Some of these effects "spill-over", altering responses to non-helminth antigens or allergens. It is suggested that this may lead to impaired responses to immunizations and infections, while conferring benefits against(More)
BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to determine whether there was an association between mothers' light drinking during pregnancy and risk of behavioural problems, and cognitive deficits in their children at age 3 years. METHODS Data from the first two sweeps of the nationally representative prospective UK Millennium Cohort study were used.(More)
BACKGROUND We studied a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults in Uganda who were not receiving antiretroviral therapy, to explore the impact of helminths on HIV progression in areas where antiretrovirals are not available. METHODS A total of 663 patients were screened for helminths, treated presumptively with albendazole and(More)