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BACKGROUND Treatment of sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) and behavioural interventions are the main methods to prevent HIV in developing countries. We aimed to assess the effect of these interventions on incidence of HIV-1 and other sexually-transmitted infections. METHODS We randomly allocated all adults living in 18 communities in rural Uganda to(More)
BACKGROUND An association between HIV-1 and malaria is expected in theory, but has not been convincingly shown in practice. We studied the effects of HIV-1 infection and advancing immunosuppression on falciparum parasitaemia and clinical malaria. METHODS HIV-1-positive and HIV-1-negative adults selected from a population-based cohort in rural Uganda were(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the burden of later disease associated with moderate/late preterm (32-36 weeks) and early term (37-38 weeks) birth. DESIGN Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS). SETTING Longitudinal study of infants born in the United Kingdom between 2000 and 2002. PARTICIPANTS 18,818 infants participated in the(More)
BACKGROUND Helminths have profound effects on the immune response, allowing long-term survival of parasites with minimal damage to the host. Some of these effects "spill-over", altering responses to non-helminth antigens or allergens. It is suggested that this may lead to impaired responses to immunizations and infections, while conferring benefits against(More)
BACKGROUND Maternal schistosomiasis and filariasis have been shown to influence infant responses to neonatal bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunisation but the effects of maternal hookworm, and of de-worming in pregnancy, are unknown. METHODS In Entebbe, Uganda, we conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a single dose of 400 mg(More)
OBJECTIVES To identify the sociodemographic factors associated with variation in area-based breastfeeding in England; to calculate the predicted breastfeeding rates adjusted for sociodemographic variations. DESIGN Ecological analysis of routine data using random effects logistic regression. SETTING All 151 primary care trusts (PCTs) in England(More)
BACKGROUND Although the majority of women in England initiate breastfeeding, approximately one third cease breastfeeding by six weeks and many of these women report they would like to have breastfed for longer. METHODS Data from a survey of women ≥16 years who gave birth to singleton term infants in 2009 in England; questionnaires were completed(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore the association between breastfeeding support and breastfeeding among late preterm (gestation 34-36 weeks) and term (gestation ≥37 weeks) infants. METHODS Secondary analysis of the UK 2010 Infant Feeding Survey. Logistic regression was used to determine the association of breastfeeding support with breastfeeding at 10 days and 6 weeks(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess whether the parents of babies born preterm (PT; <37 weeks completed gestation) are at excess risk of psychological distress (PD) at 9 months postpartum, and to explore the influence of the degree of prematurity. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS Data were drawn from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, a nationally representative prospective cohort(More)