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OBJECTIVE To systematically review studies of male circumcision and the risk of HIV-1 infection in men in sub-Saharan Africa, and to summarize the findings in a meta-analysis. DESIGN A meta-analysis of observational studies. METHODS A systematic literature review was carried out of studies published up to April 1999 that included circumcision as a risk(More)
BACKGROUND Treatment of sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) and behavioural interventions are the main methods to prevent HIV in developing countries. We aimed to assess the effect of these interventions on incidence of HIV-1 and other sexually-transmitted infections. METHODS We randomly allocated all adults living in 18 communities in rural Uganda to(More)
BACKGROUND An association between HIV-1 and malaria is expected in theory, but has not been convincingly shown in practice. We studied the effects of HIV-1 infection and advancing immunosuppression on falciparum parasitaemia and clinical malaria. METHODS HIV-1-positive and HIV-1-negative adults selected from a population-based cohort in rural Uganda were(More)
A serosurvey was conducted in a random sample of 259 women and 231 men in 12 rural communities in Mwanza Region, Tanzania, using a type-specific ELISA for Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection. Seroprevalence rose steeply with age to approximately 75% in women >=25 years old and 60% in men >=30. After adjusting for age and residence, HSV-2(More)
OBJECTIVES To compare the effect of donor breast milk with infant formula in preterm infants. Separate comparisons with formula were made for donor breast milk that was: (1) given as a sole diet; (2) given as a supplement to mother's own breast milk; and (3) fortified with macronutrients and micronutrients. The main outcomes were death, necrotising(More)
BACKGROUND A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted to estimate the efficacy of preventive therapy for tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected adults in Lusaka, Zambia. The main outcome measures were the incidence of TB, mortality and adverse drug reactions. METHODS During a 2 year period, 1053 HIV-positive individuals without evidence(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the burden of later disease associated with moderate/late preterm (32-36 weeks) and early term (37-38 weeks) birth. DESIGN Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS). SETTING Longitudinal study of infants born in the United Kingdom between 2000 and 2002. PARTICIPANTS 18,818 infants participated in the(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the association between HIV infection and patterns of sexual behaviour and other risk factors in a rural Tanzanian population in a case-control study, nested within a randomized trial of improved sexually transmitted disease treatment. METHODS All HIV-positive patients from the baseline survey of the randomized trial were eligible as(More)
SETTING Out-patient clinic, Entebbe, Uganda. BACKGROUND It has been proposed that 'type 1' cytokines are essential in protective immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and that suppression of 'type 1' or a switch to a 'type 2' profile is deleterious. We employed a simple assay to examine whether the dependence of the immunological responses to(More)
BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to determine whether there was an association between mothers' light drinking during pregnancy and risk of behavioural problems, and cognitive deficits in their children at age 3 years. METHODS Data from the first two sweeps of the nationally representative prospective UK Millennium Cohort study were used.(More)