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Molecular genotyping has been used to characterize Toxoplasma gondii strains into the three clonal lineages known as types I, II, and III. To characterize T. gondii strains from Greece and Cyprus, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis on the GRA6 gene was performed directly on 20 clinical samples from 18 humans (11(More)
Therapeutic failure in a human immunodeficiency virus-negative patient with visceral leishmaniasis was due to mixed infection by two different Leishmania infantum zymodemes: L. infantum zymodeme MON-98, which is a rare zymodeme and is reported for the first time in Greece, and zymodeme MON-1, which is common in the Mediterranean region. The two strains were(More)
Phlebotomine sand flies are incriminated in the transmission of several human and veterinary pathogens. To elucidate their role as vectors, proper species identification is crucial. Since traditional morphological determination is based on minute and often dubious characteristics on their head and genitalia, which require certain expertise and may be(More)
Abstract. During the last 35 years, visceral leishmaniasis has spread in Greece with autochthonous human cases appearing in 41 of the 54 prefectures. The occurrence of the disease was mapped and related to dog seropositivity, environmental and geospatial risk factors. Average dog seropositivity was 22.1% and positive animals were found in 43 of 54(More)
In Cyprus, leishmaniasis has been considered exclusively a veterinary problem. It was prevalent before 1945, and until its recent reemergence, it was nearly eradicated by 1996 as a consequence of the destruction of reservoir hosts and vectors. A survey carried out to provide an unbiased estimate of current transmission rates in dogs and humans showed a(More)
Rickettsia felis was identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sequencing analysis in Ctenocephalides felis fleas parasitizing rats in Cyprus. Murine typhus caused by R. typhi was believed to be the only flea-transmitted rickettsiosis on the island. This is the first report of this pathogen in southeastern Europe.
Writing and publishing are crucial to the development of a successful academic career. However, lecturers typically receive little guidance on this strand of their job. Any support that does exist tends to focus on the technical and practical aspects of scholarly writing. Advice is rarely provided on managing creative and emotional facets Á factors that(More)
An updated view of the establishment and spread of the leishmaniases in Europe is presented, mostly with respect to newly emerging and re-emerging foci and the incrimination of neglected as well as new reservoir hosts. At the same time, a concept of specific versus permissive vectors reassesses the potential role of various sandfly species in Leishmania(More)
We have developed a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective typing method, based on the amplicon size of the K26 gene, capable of species/strain discrimination of Leishmania donovani complex strains causing visceral leishmaniasis (VL). It was evaluated on 112 strains and compared with multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) typing. The K26 polymerase(More)