Mari T. Kaartinen

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Inorganic pyrophosphate (PP(i)) produced by cells inhibits mineralization by binding to crystals. Its ubiquitous presence is thought to prevent "soft" tissues from mineralizing, whereas its degradation to P(i) in bones and teeth by tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (Tnap, Tnsalp, Alpl, Akp2) may facilitate crystal growth. Whereas the crystal binding(More)
Transglutaminases (TGs) are multifunctional proteins having enzymatic and scaffolding functions that participate in regulation of cell fate in a wide range of cellular systems and are implicated to have roles in development of disease. This review highlights the mechanism of action of these proteins with respect to their structure, impact on cell(More)
Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) is an intra- and extracellular, protein-cross-linking enzyme that has been implicated in apoptosis, matrix stabilization, and cell attachment in a variety of tissues. This study provides in vivo evidence in bone of TG activity, its tissue localization, and identification of its substrates. In microplate- and blotting-based(More)
Bone development and formation during embryogenesis as well as postnatally during bone remodeling is a complex process controlled systemically and locally by hormones, growth factors and matrix molecules. Transglutaminases (TGases) are the protein cross-linking enzymes, which have long been implicated in bone development and formation. Two members of TGase(More)
Osteopontin, a major noncollagenous bone protein, is an in vitro and in vivo substrate of tissue transglutaminase, which catalyzes formation of cross-linked protein aggregates. The roles of the enzyme and the polymeric osteopontin are presently not fully understood. In this study we provide evidence that transglutaminase treatment significantly increases(More)
Microfibrils are essential elements in elastic and nonelastic tissues contributing to homeostasis and growth factor regulation. Fibrillins form the core of these multicomponent assemblies. Various human genetic disorders, the fibrillinopathies, arise from mutations in fibrillins and are frequently associated with aberrant microfibril assembly. These(More)
Transglutaminase (TG) enzymes and protein crosslinking have long been implicated in the formation of mineralized tissues. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression, activity and function of TGs in differentiating osteoblasts to gain further insight into the role of extracellular matrix protein crosslinking in bone formation. MC3T3-E1 (subclone 14)(More)
Transglutaminase 2 (TG2), a protein-crosslinking enzyme, participates in extracellular matrix maturation and cell adhesion in cartilage and bone. We hypothesized that TG2 has similar roles in teeth. A TG activity assay and immunoblotting of rat tooth extracts showed TG activity and the presence of high-molecular-weight forms of the SIBLING (Small(More)
Transglutaminase activity, arising potentially from transglutaminase 2 (TG2) and Factor XIIIA (FXIIIA), has been linked to osteoblast differentiation where it is required for type I collagen and fibronectin matrix deposition. In this study we have used an irreversible TG-inhibitor to 'block -and-track' enzyme(s) targeted during osteoblast differentiation.(More)
Fibronectin (FN) is a cell adhesion protein that binds integrins in a process also involving the protein-crosslinking enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2) as a co-receptor. The cell-adhesive property of TG2 has been linked to a complex formation with FN and to its ability to crosslink and polymerize FN on the cell surface. We tested here the effects of(More)