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Approximately 17% of the human genome is comprised of long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1, L1) non-LTR retrotransposons. L1 retrotransposition is known to be the cause of several genetic diseases, such as hemophilia A, Duchene muscular dystrophy, and so on. The L1 retroelements are also able to cause colon cancer, suggesting that L1 transposition(More)
Although pericentromeric heterochromatin is essential for chromosome segregation, its role in humans remains controversial. Dissecting the function of HIV-1-encoded Vpr, we unraveled important properties of heterochromatin during chromosome segregation. In Vpr-expressing cells, hRad21, hSgo1, and hMis12, which are crucial for proper chromosome segregation,(More)
Approximately 42% of the human genome is composed of endogenous retroelements, and the major retroelement component, long interspersed element-1 (L1), comprises ∼17% of the total genome. A single human cell has more than 5 × 10(5) copies of L1, 80∼100 copies of which are competent for retrotransposition (RTP). Notably, L1 can induce RTP of other(More)
Genomic DNA is organized three-dimensionally in the nucleus, and is thought to form compact chromatin domains. Although chromatin compaction is known to be essential for mitosis, whether it confers other advantages, particularly in interphase cells, remains unknown. Here, we report that chromatin compaction protects genomic DNA from radiation damage. Using(More)
Viral protein R (Vpr), a protein of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) with various biological functions, was shown to be present in the blood of HIV-1-positive patients. However, it remained unclear whether circulating Vpr in patients’ blood is biologically active. Here, we examined the activity of blood Vpr using an assay system by which(More)
HL-60 cells undergo apoptosis when placed at room temperature (RT) [Shimura et al. (1997) FEBS Lett. 417, 379-384]. We report that superoxide anion radical, one of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), was produced after RT treatment. Affinity blot analysis with a biotinylated YVAD-CHO detected the generation of processed peptides with molecular masses of(More)
Chromatin DNA must be read out for various cellular functions, and copied for the next cell division. These processes are targets of many anticancer agents. Platinum-based drugs, such as cisplatin, have been used extensively in cancer chemotherapy. The drug-DNA interaction causes DNA crosslinks and subsequent cytotoxicity. Recently, it was reported that an(More)
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