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Cerebrosides A and C, compounds categorized as glycosphingolipids, were isolated in our previous study from the rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea) as novel elicitors which induce the synthesis of rice phytoalexins. In this paper, these cerebroside elicitors showed phytoalexin-inducing activity when applied to plants by spray treatment and also induced(More)
The centromere of a chromosome is composed mainly of two domains, a kinetochore assembling core centromere and peri-centromeric heterochromatin regions. The crucial role of centromeric heterochromatin is still unknown, because even in simpler unicellular organisms such as the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the heterochromatin protein Swi6 (HP1(More)
When plants interact with certain pathogens, they protect themselves by generating various chemical and physical barriers called the hypersensitive response. These barriers are induced by molecules called elicitors that are produced by pathogens. In the present study, the most active elicitors of the hypersensitive response in rice were isolated from the(More)
The dual specificity phosphatase CDC25B positively controls the G2-M transition by activating CDK1/cyclin B. The binding of 14-3-3 to CDC25B has been shown to regulate the subcellular redistribution of CDC25B from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and may be correlated with the G2 checkpoint. We used a FLAG-tagged version of CDC25B to study the differences among(More)
Approximately 17% of the human genome is comprised of long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1, L1) non-LTR retrotransposons. L1 retrotransposition is known to be the cause of several genetic diseases, such as hemophilia A, Duchene muscular dystrophy, and so on. The L1 retroelements are also able to cause colon cancer, suggesting that L1 transposition(More)
Vpr, a HIV-1 accessory protein, was believed to be present in the plasma of HIV-1-positive patients, and our previous work demonstrated the presence of plasma Vpr in 20 out of 52 patients. Interestingly, our data revealed that patients' viral titer was correlated with the level of Vpr detected in their plasma. Here, we first show that rVpr, when incubated(More)
Approximately 42% of the human genome is composed of endogenous retroelements, and the major retroelement component, long interspersed element-1 (L1), comprises ∼17% of the total genome. A single human cell has more than 5 × 10(5) copies of L1, 80∼100 copies of which are competent for retrotransposition (RTP). Notably, L1 can induce RTP of other(More)
Minerals are important for cellular functions, such as transcription and enzyme activity, and are also involved in the metabolism of anticancer chemotherapeutic compounds. Profiling of intracellular elements in individual cells could help in understanding the mechanism of drug resistance in tumors and possibly provide a new strategy of anticancer(More)
Antiretroviral cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G, which is abundantly expressed in peripheral blood lymphocytes and macrophages, strongly protects these cells against HIV-1 infection. The HIV-1 Vif protein overcomes this antiviral effect by enhancing proteasome-mediated APOBEC3G degradation and is key for maintaining viral infectivity. The 579-bp-long vif gene(More)
Although pericentromeric heterochromatin is essential for chromosome segregation, its role in humans remains controversial. Dissecting the function of HIV-1-encoded Vpr, we unraveled important properties of heterochromatin during chromosome segregation. In Vpr-expressing cells, hRad21, hSgo1, and hMis12, which are crucial for proper chromosome segregation,(More)