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The centromere of a chromosome is composed mainly of two domains, a kinetochore assembling core centromere and peri-centromeric heterochromatin regions. The crucial role of centromeric heterochromatin is still unknown, because even in simpler unicellular organisms such as the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the heterochromatin protein Swi6 (HP1(More)
When plants interact with certain pathogens, they protect themselves by generating various chemical and physical barriers called the hypersensitive response. These barriers are induced by molecules called elicitors that are produced by pathogens. In the present study, the most active elicitors of the hypersensitive response in rice were isolated from the(More)
Cerebrosides A and C, compounds categorized as glycosphingolipids, were isolated in our previous study from the rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea) as novel elicitors which induce the synthesis of rice phytoalexins. In this paper, these cerebroside elicitors showed phytoalexin-inducing activity when applied to plants by spray treatment and also induced(More)
The dual specificity phosphatase CDC25B positively controls the G2-M transition by activating CDK1/cyclin B. The binding of 14-3-3 to CDC25B has been shown to regulate the subcellular redistribution of CDC25B from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and may be correlated with the G2 checkpoint. We used a FLAG-tagged version of CDC25B to study the differences among(More)
Approximately 17% of the human genome is comprised of long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1, L1) non-LTR retrotransposons. L1 retrotransposition is known to be the cause of several genetic diseases, such as hemophilia A, Duchene muscular dystrophy, and so on. The L1 retroelements are also able to cause colon cancer, suggesting that L1 transposition(More)
To investigate the mechanism of aneuploidy that is frequently observed in AIDS, we examined premature sister chromatid separation (PCS), a sign of genomic instability, in peripheral blood cells of HIV-1-infected individuals. PCS was found in all six HIV-1 individuals at a high incidence. When peripheral blood cells from healthy volunteers were infected with(More)
Although pericentromeric heterochromatin is essential for chromosome segregation, its role in humans remains controversial. Dissecting the function of HIV-1-encoded Vpr, we unraveled important properties of heterochromatin during chromosome segregation. In Vpr-expressing cells, hRad21, hSgo1, and hMis12, which are crucial for proper chromosome segregation,(More)
Genomic DNA is organized three-dimensionally in the nucleus, and is thought to form compact chromatin domains. Although chromatin compaction is known to be essential for mitosis, whether it confers other advantages, particularly in interphase cells, remains unknown. Here, we report that chromatin compaction protects genomic DNA from radiation damage. Using(More)
Antiretroviral cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G, which is abundantly expressed in peripheral blood lymphocytes and macrophages, strongly protects these cells against HIV-1 infection. The HIV-1 Vif protein overcomes this antiviral effect by enhancing proteasome-mediated APOBEC3G degradation and is key for maintaining viral infectivity. The 579-bp-long vif gene(More)
Most cell lines that lack functional p53 protein are arrested in the G2 phase of the cell cycle due to DNA damage. When the G2 checkpoint is abrogated, these cells are forced into mitotic catastrophe. A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells, in which p53 was eliminated with the HPV16 E6 gene, exhibited efficient arrest in the G2 phase when treated with adriamycin.(More)