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To examine mirror neuron abnormalities in autism, high-functioning children with autism and matched controls underwent fMRI while imitating and observing emotional expressions. Although both groups performed the tasks equally well, children with autism showed no mirror neuron activity in the inferior frontal gyrus (pars opercularis). Notably, activity in(More)
Abnormal eye contact is a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), though little is understood of the neural bases of gaze processing in ASD. Competing hypotheses suggest that individuals with ASD avoid eye contact due to the anxiety-provoking nature of direct eye gaze or that eye-gaze cues hold less interest or significance to children with ASD.(More)
BACKGROUND Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by decreased interest and engagement in social interactions and by enhanced self-focus. While previous theoretical approaches to understanding autism have emphasized social impairments and altered interpersonal interactions, there is a recent shift towards understanding the nature of the(More)
1. The excitability of lumbar spinal motoneurones was studied in halothane-anaesthetized rats by recording with microelectrodes the amplitude of the population spike evoked antidromically by stimulation of the cut ventral roots. 2. Electrical stimulation of the nucleus raphe obscurus for 1 min at 20 Hz increased the population spike amplitude and, as shown(More)
Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) typically show impaired eye contact during social interactions. From a young age, they look less at faces than typically developing (TD) children and tend to avoid direct gaze. However, the reason for this behavior remains controversial; ASD children might avoid eye contact because they perceive the eyes as(More)
We examined the effect of argiopine and argiopinine 3, low molecular weight polyamine venom components of the spider Argiope lobata, on rat cortical excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Responses to 100 microM N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) with 10 microM glycine were blocked by both of the polyamine toxins in a dose-dependent(More)
Previous work has shown that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor agonists such as 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) reduce 5-HT neurotransmission and induce feeding in rats. The effects of 8-OH-DPAT appear to be mediated in part in the dorsal raphe nucleus by serotonergic somatodendritic autoreceptors which normally regulate impulse flow in(More)
Synaptic transmission in the CA1 area of the hippocampal slice preparation in vitro was studied in bathing media containing different levels of divalent cations. Transmission was abolished by replacing the normal levels (2.5 mM) of Ca2+ with 3 mM Mg. Transmission was not permanently restored by subsequent addition of Ba2+ but added Ca2+ was effective.(More)
1. The roles of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and dopamine systems in mediating the increased feeding induced by buspirone, gepirone and ipsapirone were investigated. 2. All three compounds induced dose-dependent increases in food intake when administered subcutaneously to free feeding rats. Buspirone was effective over a narrower dose range than either(More)
Previously, the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A receptor agonists, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) and buspirone and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ICS 205-930 have been shown to exert anxiolytic-like effects in several animal models. In the experiments reported here the effects of these compounds on feeding behaviour and food preference in a(More)