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In recent years, many alternative models have been proposed to address some of the shortcomings of the hidden Markov model, currently the most popular approach to speech recognition. In particular, a variety of models that could be broadly classiied as segment models have been described for representing a variable-length sequence of observation vectors in(More)
Numerous studies have indicated that prosodic phrase boundaries may be marked by a variety of acoustic phenomena including segmental lengthening. It has not been established, however, whether this lengthening is restricted to the immediate vicinity of the boundary, or if it extends over some larger region. In this study, segmental lengthening in the(More)
Effective human and automatic processing of speech requires recovery of more than just the words. It also involves recovering phenomena such as sentence boundaries, filler words, and disfluencies, referred to as structural metadata. We describe a metadata detection system that combines information from different types of textual knowledge sources with(More)
In addition to ordinary words and names, real text contains non-standard " words " (NSWs), including numbers, abbreviations, dates, currency amounts and acronyms. Typically, one cannot find NSWs in a dictionary, nor can one find their pronunciation by an application of ordinary " letter-to-sound " rules. Non-standard words also have a greater propensity(More)
Reading proficiency is a fundamental component of language competency. However, finding topical texts at an appropriate reading level for foreign and second language learners is a challenge for teachers. This task can be addressed with natural language processing technology to assess reading level. Existing measures of reading level are not well suited to(More)
Earlier work on the glottalization of word-initial vowels sought an account in terms of the morphosyntactic hierarchy and isolated facts about stress , without accounting for the possible role of phrase-level prosodic structure. More recent work based on prosodic theory (Pierrehumbert & Talkin , 1992 ; Pierrehumbert , 1995) has shown that prosodic(More)