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Neural mechanisms of the blinking reflex elicited by corneal stimulation were analyzed with electrophysiological techniques in the encéphale isolé cat. (1) Mechanical and electrical stimulation elicited two successive responses of the electromyogram of the orbicularis oculi. Neuromuscular unit studies revealed that the same unit was excited twice and that(More)
AIMS To elucidate the morphological features of optic neuropathy in an ischaemic model of glaucoma in macaque monkeys. METHODS The regional degenerative process was investigated by experimentally occluding the paraoptic branches of the lateral short posterior ciliary artery, that is, the circle of Haller and Zinn, in 11 eyes. Morphological changes in(More)
PURPOSE To elucidate factors contributing to corneal complications after vitrectomy in diabetic patients. METHODS The records of a series of 129 diabetic patients (202 eyes) who underwent pars plana vitrectomy performed by a single surgeon between March 1997 and February 1999 were analyzed retrospectively. Logistic regression analysis was performed to(More)
This report describes an experimental study on the localization of converging organization of the near-reflex triad in the chloralose-anesthetized encéphale-isolé cat, in which electromyographic (EMG) recordings were used to elicit responses from the intrinsic and extrinsic eye muscles. Electrical stimulation to several subdivisional areas in the oculomotor(More)
Ciliary zonules are responsible for changing the curvature of a lens in the dioptric focus of an eye. Present established theory is based on the relaxation of zonular superficial fasciculi affixed to the capsular surface, thereby inducing the change of anterior- and posterior lens curvature causing spontaneous liquid movement of lens material. To achieve(More)
PURPOSE The morphology of the crystalline lens was studied by conventional staining techniques. The thickness of the capsule, the features of epithelial cells, and the distribution of inter fibrillar connective tissue were observed. METHODS Eight eyes of young monkeys were examined. Resin-embedded specimens of the anterior segment were sectioned into 3(More)
Morphological analyses of zonule conjugated with lens capsule were performed on the developmental change in eyes from the age of fetus to 7 years old of the rhesus macaques (Macaca fuscata). The zonule was filamentous network in late fetus. After birth, the zonular microfibrils originated from the nonpigmented epithelium of the ciliary process. On the(More)
PURPOSE A newly developed "Near Triad Meter" is a useful tool to record the dynamics of pupils and horizontal eye movements in both eyes simultaneously with the accommodative stimuli. The responses show insufficiency or strain for accommodation. In this study the objective accommodative power (in diopters, D) is calculated by the measurement of pupillary(More)
For more than a century there has been debate concerning the mechanism of accommodation--whether the lens capsule or lens material itself determines the functional relationship between ciliary muscle contractility and lens deformation during refractive adaptation. This morphological study in monkey eyes investigates the composition and distribution of(More)
PURPOSE Recording of "near triad responses" was done by static accommodative stimulation to reveal the qualitative analysis of asthenopia. METHOD Twelve healthy subjects in agegroups of 20, 30, and 40 years were examined before and after several hours of visual display terminal (VDT) work after informed consent. Three trials of forward <-> backward(More)