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Tuberculosis remains a leading cause of death worldwide, despite the availability of effective chemotherapy and a vaccine. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the tuberculosis vaccine, is an attenuated mutant of Mycobacterium bovis that was isolated after serial subcultures, yet the functional basis for this attenuation has never been elucidated. A single(More)
TEL is a transcriptional repressor that is a frequent target of chromosomal translocations in a large number of hematalogical malignancies. These rearrangements fuse a potent oligomerization module, the SAM domain of TEL, to a variety of tyrosine kinases or transcriptional regulatory proteins. The self-associating property of TEL-SAM is essential for cell(More)
Host-pathogen interactions are often driven by mechanisms that promote genetic variability. We have identified a group of temperate bacteriophages that generate diversity in a gene, designated mtd (major tropism determinant), which specifies tropism for receptor molecules on host Bordetella species. Tropism switching is the result of a template-dependent,(More)
The polycomb group (PcG) proteins are important in the maintenance of stable repression patterns during development. Several PcG members contain a protein protein interaction module called a SAM domain (also known as SPM, PNT and HLH). Here we report the high-resolution structure of the SAM domain of polyhomeotic (Ph). Ph-SAM forms a helical polymer(More)
The postsynaptic density (PSD) is a complex assembly of proteins associated with the postsynaptic membrane that organizes neurotransmitter receptors, signaling pathways, and regulatory elements within a cytoskeletal matrix. Here we show that the sterile alpha motif domain of rat Shank3/ProSAP2, a master scaffolding protein located deep within the PSD, can(More)
In humans suffering from dialysis-related amyloidosis, the protein beta2-microglobulin (beta2M) is deposited as an amyloid; however, an amyloid of beta2M is unknown in mice. beta2M sequences from human and mouse are 70% identical, but there is a seven-residue peptide in which six residues differ. This peptide from human beta2M forms amyloid in vitro,(More)
The diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) enzymes function as regulators of intracellular signaling by altering the levels of the second messengers, diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid. The DGK delta and eta isozymes possess a common protein-protein interaction module known as a sterile alpha-motif (SAM) domain. In DGK delta, SAM domain self-association inhibits the(More)
Three-dimensional (3D) domain-swapped proteins are intermolecularly folded analogs of monomeric proteins; both are stabilized by the identical interactions, but the individual domains interact intramolecularly in monomeric proteins, whereas they form intermolecular interactions in 3D domain-swapped structures. The structures and conditions of formation of(More)
Type III secretion system (T3SS) tip complexes serve as adaptors that bridge the T3SS needle and the pore-forming translocation apparatus. In this report we demonstrate that Bsp22, the most abundantly secreted substrate of the Bordetella T3SS, self-polymerizes to form the Bordetella bronchiseptica tip complex. Bsp22 is required for both T3SS-mediated(More)
The diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) family of enzymes plays critical roles in lipid signaling pathways by converting diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid, thereby downregulating signaling by the former and upregulating signaling by the latter second messenger. Ten DGK family isozymes have been identified to date, which possess different interaction motifs(More)