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Tuberculosis remains a leading cause of death worldwide, despite the availability of effective chemotherapy and a vaccine. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the tuberculosis vaccine, is an attenuated mutant of Mycobacterium bovis that was isolated after serial subcultures, yet the functional basis for this attenuation has never been elucidated. A single(More)
The postsynaptic density (PSD) is a complex assembly of proteins associated with the postsynaptic membrane that organizes neurotransmitter receptors, signaling pathways, and regulatory elements within a cytoskeletal matrix. Here we show that the sterile alpha motif domain of rat Shank3/ProSAP2, a master scaffolding protein located deep within the PSD, can(More)
Host-pathogen interactions are often driven by mechanisms that promote genetic variability. We have identified a group of temperate bacteriophages that generate diversity in a gene, designated mtd (major tropism determinant), which specifies tropism for receptor molecules on host Bordetella species. Tropism switching is the result of a template-dependent,(More)
TEL is a transcriptional repressor that is a frequent target of chromosomal translocations in a large number of hematalogical malignancies. These rearrangements fuse a potent oligomerization module, the SAM domain of TEL, to a variety of tyrosine kinases or transcriptional regulatory proteins. The self-associating property of TEL-SAM is essential for cell(More)
The polycomb group (PcG) proteins are important in the maintenance of stable repression patterns during development. Several PcG members contain a protein protein interaction module called a SAM domain (also known as SPM, PNT and HLH). Here we report the high-resolution structure of the SAM domain of polyhomeotic (Ph). Ph-SAM forms a helical polymer(More)
In humans suffering from dialysis-related amyloidosis, the protein beta2-microglobulin (beta2M) is deposited as an amyloid; however, an amyloid of beta2M is unknown in mice. beta2M sequences from human and mouse are 70% identical, but there is a seven-residue peptide in which six residues differ. This peptide from human beta2M forms amyloid in vitro,(More)
Amyloid or amyloid-like fibrils are elongated, insoluble protein aggregates, formed in vivo in association with neurodegenerative diseases or in vitro from soluble native proteins, respectively. The underlying structure of the fibrillar or 'cross-beta' state has presented long-standing, fundamental puzzles of protein structure. These include whether(More)
Liu et al. recently described a group of related temperate bacteriophages that infect Bordetella subspecies and undergo a unique template-dependent, reverse transcriptase-mediated tropism switching phenomenon (Liu et al., Science 295: 2091-2094, 2002). Tropism switching results from the introduction of single nucleotide substitutions at defined locations in(More)
The diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) enzymes function as regulators of intracellular signaling by altering the levels of the second messengers, diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid. The DGK delta and eta isozymes possess a common protein-protein interaction module known as a sterile alpha-motif (SAM) domain. In DGK delta, SAM domain self-association inhibits the(More)
Three-dimensional (3D) domain-swapped proteins are intermolecularly folded analogs of monomeric proteins; both are stabilized by the identical interactions, but the individual domains interact intramolecularly in monomeric proteins, whereas they form intermolecular interactions in 3D domain-swapped structures. The structures and conditions of formation of(More)