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Neuron/glial 2 (NG2)-expressing cells are often referred to as oligodendrocyte precursor cells. NG2-expressing cells have also been identified as multipotent progenitor cells. However, microglia-like NG2 glial cells have not been fully examined in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, we chose two rat models of(More)
L-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is considered the gold standard for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, long-term administration of L-DOPA can induce abnormal side effects. On the other hand, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) including fluoxetine have gained tremendous popularity in the treatment of depression in PD. SSRIs(More)
The goal of cross-language voice conversion is to preserve the speech characteristics of one speaker when that speaker's speech is translated and used to synthesize speech in another language. In this paper, two preliminary studies, i.e., a statistical analysis of spectrum differences in different languages and the first attempt at a cross-language voice(More)
This paper describes our approach to support the development of large-scale Web applications. Large development efforts have to be divided into a number of smaller tasks of different kinds that can be performed by multiple developers. Once this process has taken place, it is important to manage the consistency among the artifacts in an efficient and(More)
Chronic systemic exposure of Lewis rats to rotenone produced many features of Parkinson's disease (PD), including nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) neurodegeneration and the formation of cytoplasmic inclusions in nigral DA neurons. We also reported that chronic oral administration of rotenone at 30 mg/kg for 28 d caused specific nigrostriatal DA neurodegeneration(More)
Bisphosphonates are widely used for the treatment and prevention of bone diseases, including Paget disease, hypercalcemia of malignancy, and postmenopausal osteoporosis. In this study, we developed a novel transdermal patch of alendronate, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, for the treatment of bone diseases. The maximum permeation fluxes of alendronate(More)