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—One of the main challenges for the future of information and communication technologies is the reduction of the power consumption in telecommunication networks. The key consumers are the home gateways at the customer premises for fixed line access technologies and the base stations for wireless access technologies. However, with increasing bit rates, the(More)
In mobile technologies two trends are competing. On the one hand, the mobile access network requires optimisation in energy consumption. On the other hand, data volumes and required bit rates are rapidly increasing. The latter trend requires the deployment of more dense mobile access networks as the higher bit rates are available at shorter distance from(More)
Nowadays, wireless access networks are a large contributor to the CO<inf>2</inf> emissions of ICT. Today, ICT is responsible for 4 % of the annual energy consumption and this number is expected to grow drastically in the coming years. The power consumption of these wireless access networks will thus become an important issue in the coming years. In this(More)
As large energy consumers, base stations need energy-efficient wireless access networks. This article compares the design of Long-Term Evolution (LTE) networks to energy-efficient LTE-Advanced networks. LTE-Advanced introduces three new functionalities--carrier aggregation, heterogeneous networks, and extended multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) support.(More)
The goal of this paper is to investigate the performance of a mobile WiMAX system for various settings of its physical-layer parameters and for realistic propagation channels. For this, a physical layer model of IEEE 802.16e is developed in software. Different propagation channels are implemented, such as the Rayleigh channel and the SUI channel models.(More)
—The power consumption of wireless access networks will become an important issue in the coming years. In this paper the power consumption of base stations for mobile WiMAX, fixed WiMAX and UMTS is modelled. This power consumption is evaluated in relation to the coverage. For a physical bit rate of 2 Mbps, a power consumption of approximately 5600 W and a(More)
In this paper, the energy efficiency of a femtocell base station is investigated and compared for various bit rates and for three different wireless technologies namely, mobile WiMAX, HSPA, and LTE. A power consumption model is proposed and applied in a network deployment tool to develop energy-efficient femtocell networks. Furthermore, it is investigated(More)