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A high power, hollow Bessel beam (J5) is generated using an axicon and a phase plate in combination. The optical breakdown of a gas target and generation of a tubular plasma fiber with such a beam is realized. Hydrodynamic simulations of the hollow beam-plasma breakdown and heating are in reasonable agreement with interferometric measurements of the plasma(More)
Horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase was crystallized in the presence of its cofactor. The cross-linked enzyme crystals (CLECs) produced showed good catalytic activity without the addition of extra cofactor (see scheme). The enantioselectivity and stereochemical preference of the CLEC were the same as with the soluble enzyme, and both cofactor and enzyme were(More)
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