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Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), like other members of the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily, establishes latent infection in sensory neurons. Reactivation from latency can occur after natural or corticosteroid-induced stress culminating in recurrent disease and/or virus transmission to uninfected animals. Our previous results concluded that CD4(+) T cells in the(More)
Acute infection of cattle with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) represses cell-mediated immunity, which can lead to secondary bacterial infections. Since BHV-1 can induce apoptosis of cultured lymphocytes, we hypothesized that these virus-host interactions occur in cattle. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed lymph nodes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells(More)
Following primary infection of the eye, oral cavity, and/or nasal cavity, bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) establishes latency in trigeminal ganglionic (TG) neurons. Virus reactivation and spread to other susceptible animals occur after natural or corticosteroid-induced stress. Infection of calves with BHV-1 leads to infiltration of lymphocytes in TG and(More)
Monooxygenases are enzymes that catalyze the insertion of a single oxygen atom from O(2) into an organic substrate. In order to carry out this type of reaction, these enzymes need to activate molecular oxygen to overcome its spin-forbidden reaction with the organic substrate. In most cases, monooxygenases utilize (in)organic cofactors to transfer electrons(More)
Haemotrophic mycoplasmas are unculturable eperythrocytic pathogens that are found in a wide range of domestic and wild animals. In this study an outbreak of haemotrophic mycoplasmosis in cattle herds in Northern Germany is reported. Affected animals exhibited anaemia and depression and infection was confirmed following microscopic examination of blood(More)
Following acute infection of cattle with bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), cyclin expression was examined in trigeminal ganglia (TG). Cyclin A was primarily detected in the nucleus of TG neurons. In contrast, cyclin D1 and cyclin E were detected in the nucleus and cytoplasm of TG neurons. Uninfected or latently infected calves did not express detectable levels(More)
Despite productive viral gene expression in the peripheral nervous system during acute infection, the bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) infection cycle is blocked in sensory ganglionic neurons and consequently latency is established. The only abundant viral transcript expressed during latency is the latency-related (LR) RNA. LR gene products inhibit S-phase(More)
Resistance to cephalosporins and/or fluoroquinolones by Staphylococcus intermedius has remained low in Europe, with effective drugs generally available for systemic therapy in pets. However, multiresistant, mecA-positive S. intermedius isolated from dogs and cats is now emerging in Europe. Twelve S. intermedius isolates, highly resistant to at least five(More)
Budding yeasts are important expression hosts for the production of recombinant proteins.The choice of the right promoter is a crucial point for efficient gene expression, as most regulations take place at the transcriptional level. A wide and constantly increasing range of inducible, derepressed and constitutive promoters have been applied for gene(More)
By combining gene design and heterologous over-expression of Rhodotorula gracilis D-amino acid oxidase (RgDAO) in Pichia pastoris, enzyme production was enhanced by one order of magnitude compared to literature benchmarks, giving 350 kUnits/l of fed-batch bioreactor culture with a productivity of 3.1 kUnits/l h. P. pastoris cells permeabilized by(More)