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The Raf-1 kinase plays a key role in relaying proliferation signals elicited by mitogens or oncogenes. Raf-1 is regulated by complex and incompletely understood mechanisms including phosphorylation. A number of studies have indicated that phosphorylation of serines 259 and 621 can inhibit the Raf-1 kinase. We show that both serines are hypophosphorylated(More)
With the objective of discovering novel putative intervention sites for anticancer therapy, we compared transcriptional profiles of breast cancer, lung squamous cell cancer (LSCC), lung adenocarcinoma (LAC), and renal cell cancer (RCC). Each of these tumor types still needs improvement in medical treatment. Our intention was to search for genes not only(More)
PURPOSE Accurate testing of HER2 is centrally important for breast cancer therapy and prognosis. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) are current standard testing methods. As a potential alternative for assessment of HER2, we explored quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), a fast and inexpensive method(More)
Mitogenic stimulation of Raf-1 is a complex yet incompletely understood process involving membrane relocalization and phosphorylation of activating residues. We recently reported that Raf-1-associated protein phosphatase 2A contributes to kinase activation, an effect mediated via Ser-259 of Raf-1. Here, we show that mitogens stimulate Ser-259(More)
In 19 families of juvenile diabetes patients intravenous glucose tolerance was tested and HLA antigens were determined. A total of 68 first degree blood relations (siblings, parents, children) was studied. Taking the age dependent variabilities of the glucose assimilation coefficient (k-value) into consideration, glucose intolerance was found in 35.5% of(More)
PURPOSE Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are potent mitogens for breast cancer cells in vitro, and elevated IGF-I serum levels are a risk factor for breast malignancies. This study evaluated IGF-I and IGF-II serum levels in healthy women and in patients with benign and malignant breast lesions and correlated them with tumor size. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN(More)
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling is a key regulator of breast development and breast cancer. We have analyzed the expression of the IGF signaling cascade in 17 human breast cancer and 4 mammary epithelial cell lines. Five cell lines expressed high levels of IGF1 receptor, insulin (INS)/IGF receptor substrate 1, IGF-binding proteins 2 and 4, as(More)
BACKGROUND In 2001 the Austrian government provided the legal means that formally enabled "anonymous birth": a woman can now give birth in any hospital in Austria without giving her name or insurance number, the baby is taken into care by social services and placed with adoptive parents. The cost of the hospital stay is covered from public funds. These(More)