Margherita Rosati

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We report that interleukin 4 (IL-4) inhibits the propagation of non-syncytia-inducing and increases the propagation of syncytia-inducing HIV-1 isolates by two mechanisms. It differentially regulates the two major HIV-1 coreceptors, CCR5 and CXCR4, in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, increasing CXCR4 and decreasing CCR5 expression in primary CD4(+)(More)
We show that co-expression of interleukin 15 (IL-15) and IL-15 receptor alpha (IL-15Ralpha) in the same cell allows for the intracellular interaction of the two proteins early after translation, resulting in increased stability and secretion of both molecules as a complex. In the absence of co-expressed IL-15Ralpha, a large portion of the produced IL-15 is(More)
Intramuscular injection of macaques with an IL-12 expression plasmid (0.1 or 0.4 mg DNA/animal) optimized for high level of expression and delivered using in vivo electroporation, resulted in the detection of systemic IL-12 cytokine in the plasma. Peak levels obtained by day 4-5 post injection were paralleled by a rapid increase of IFN-γ, indicating(More)
The two known isoforms of IL-15 contain either a long signal peptide (LSP) or a short signal peptide (SSP), and are produced by alternatively spliced transcripts. It has been proposed that SSP IL-15 remains exclusively intracellular, and its function is unclear. In this study, we show that, similar to LSP IL-15, the SSP IL-15 is stabilized and secreted(More)
Of the various approaches being developed as prophylactic HIV vaccines, those based on a heterologous plasmid DNA prime, live vector boost vaccination regimen appear especially promising in the nonhuman primate/simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge model. In this study, we sought to determine whether a series of intramuscular priming(More)
Since human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses are critical in the early control and resolution of HIV infection and correlate with postchallenge outcomes in rhesus macaque challenge experiments, we sought to identify a plasmid DNA (pDNA) vaccine design capable of eliciting robust and balanced CMI responses to(More)
We used optimized DNA expression vectors to compare two gene delivery methodologies in rhesus macaques, namely direct DNA injection and in vivo adaptive constant-current electroporation via the intramuscular route. The use of in vivo electroporation increased levels of gene expression and immune responses. We used an optimized HIV gag expression plasmid to(More)
We have identified a subset of CD56(+)CD3(-) human natural killer (NK) cells that express CD4 and the HIV coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4. These cells can be productively infected in vitro by both CCR5- and CXCR4-using molecular clones of HIV-1 in a CD4-dependent manner. Analysis of HIV-infected persons showed that viral DNA is present in purified NK cells, and(More)
IL-15 is an important cytokine for the function of the immune system, but the form(s) of IL-15 produced in the human body are not fully characterized. Coexpression of the single-chain IL-15 and the IL-15 receptor alpha (IL-15Rα) in the same cell allows for efficient production, surface display, and eventual cleavage and secretion of the bioactive(More)
The effectiveness of plasmid DNA (pDNA) vaccines can be improved by the co-delivery of plasmid-encoded molecular adjuvants. We evaluated pDNAs encoding GM-CSF, Flt-3L, IL-12 alone, or in combination, for their relative ability to serve as adjuvants to augment humoral and cell-mediated immune responses elicited by prototype pDNA vaccines. In Balb/c mice we(More)