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In this study, 40 Japanese, 44 German and 39 Mexican women were presented with 18 everyday odorants. They were asked to rate them for intensity on a six-point scale from not detectable to very strong, for pleasantness on an 11-point scale from -5, to neutral at 0, to +5, and for familiarity on a six-point scale from completely unknown to extremely familiar.(More)
The efferent innervation of the pelvic and pudendal nerves was characterized in this study by identifying the muscles activated by electrical stimulation of the nerves distal to the point at which they bifurcate from the L6-S1 trunk. Pelvic nerve electrical stimulation produced EMG-monitored contraction of the ipsilateral ilio- and pubococcygeus muscles,(More)
Here we describe the nerves innervating the perineal skin together with their sensory fields in the adult female rat. Electrophysiological recording showed that the lumbosacral and L6-S1 trunks, in part by way of the sacral plexus, transmit sensory information from the perineal skin via four nerves: the viscerocutaneous branch of the pelvic nerve(More)
To investigate the influence of experience on odor perception the responses of 40 Japanese and 44 age-matched German women to everyday odorants were compared. Subjects were presented with six 'Japanese,' six 'European' and six 'international' odorants and asked to rate them on intensity, familiarity, pleasantness and edibility, and to describe associations(More)
The present study describes several muscular reflexes produced by genital stimulation, the nerves that subserve them, and the visceral and postural effects induced by these reflexes. Electrical stimulation of the iliococcygeus (ic) and pubococcygeus (pc) (striated) muscles produced movement of the vaginal orifice and wall, membranous urethra, tail and(More)
Oviductal regions show particular histological characteristics and functions. Tubal pathologies and hypothyroidism are related to primary and secondary infertility. The impact of hypothyroidism on the histological characteristics of oviductal regions has been scarcely studied. Our aim was to analyse the histological characteristics of oviductal regions in(More)
Pain threshold was determined in female rats using the tail flick test. Latency to respond depended on the locus of the tail heated, with the most distal sites resulting in the shortest response times (Experiment 1). Tail flick latency also varied according to the time of day, with shorter response times recorded around the middle of the dark phase than(More)
Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages promotes the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans. One factor related to the appearance of MetS components is the dysfunction of the adrenal gland. In fact, the experimental generation of hyperglycemia has been associated with morphological and microvascular changes in the(More)
Poor maternal nutrition predisposes offspring to metabolic disease. This predisposition is modified by various postnatal factors. We hypothesised that coupled to the initial effects of developmental programming due to a maternal low-protein diet, a second hit resulting from increased offspring postnatal sugar consumption would lead to additional changes in(More)
Little information is available on the participation of the perineal striated muscles in female reproductive processes. Here, we describe the gross anatomy and innervation of two striated perineal muscles in the female rabbit, the bulbospongiosus (BSM) and ischiocavernosus (ISM), and analyze their reflex electromyographic (EMG) activity in response to(More)