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We have used the patch-clamp electrical recording technique on giant spheroplasts of Escherichia coli and have discovered pressure-activated ion channels. The channels have the following properties: activation by slight positive or negative pressure; voltage dependence; large conductance; selectivity for anions over cations; dependence of activity on the(More)
The electrical properties of Escherichia coli cells were examined by the patch-clamp technique. Giant cells or giant spheroplasts were generated by five different methods. By electron micrographic and other criteria we determined that the patches are most likely from the outer membrane. We regularly observed currents through at least two types of channels(More)
Insular lizards, birds, and mammals in high-density populations often exhibit reduced situation-specific aggression toward conspecifics. This aggressive behavior can be expressed in the form of (1) reduced territory sizes, (2) increased territory overlap with neighbors, (3) acceptance of subordinates on the territory, (4) reduced aggressiveness to certain(More)
We present protocols and input data for Phase 1 of the Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison, a project of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP). The project includes global simulations of yields, phenologies, and many land-surface fluxes using 12– 15 modeling groups for many crops, climate forcing data sets, and(More)
The relationship between outer membrane permeability and chemotaxis in Escherichia coli was studied on mutants in the major porin genes ompF and ompC. Both porins allowed passage of amino acids across the outer membrane sufficiently to be sensed by the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins, although OmpF was more effective than OmpC. A mutant deleted for(More)
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