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AIMS Interindividual variability in efavirenz pharmacokinetics is not entirely explained by the well-recognized CYP2B6 516G-->T single nucleotide polymorphism. The aim of this study was to determine whether polymorphisms in the CYP2A6 gene can be used to enhance the predictability of efavirenz concentrations in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected(More)
BACKGROUND Rapid diagnostic tests are urgently needed to mitigate HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB) mortality. We evaluated diagnostic accuracy of the rapid urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) test for pulmonary TB and assessed the effect of a two-sample strategy. METHODS HIV-infected adults eligible for antiretroviral therapy were prospectively enrolled from(More)
BACKGROUND Although Cryptosporidiumspp. infections in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients (AIDS) with chronic diarrhoea have been reported in several African countries, there is no information regarding cryptosporidial diarrhoea in Ghanaian AIDS patients. OBJECTIVE To investigate the occurrence of C. parvum and other gastrointestinal parasitic(More)
BACKGROUND Buruli ulcer (BU) is a skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Its exact mode of transmission is not known. Previous studies have identified demographic, socio-economic, health and hygiene as well as environment related risk factors. We investigated whether the same factors pertain in Suhum-Kraboa-Coaltar (SKC) and Akuapem South (AS)(More)
Viral decay rates during efavirenz-based therapy were compared between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients without tuberculosis (n = 40) and those with tuberculosis coinfection who were receiving concurrent antituberculous therapy (n = 34). Phase I and II viral decay rates were similar in the 2 groups (P > .05). Overall, concurrent(More)
INTRODUCTION Against the background of Ghana's ART program which scaled up rapidly since inception in 2003, the study assessed outcomes of an early cohort of patients initiating ART. METHODS THE STUDY UTILIZED THE FOLLOWING METHODS: a cross-sectional study involving patient interviews using a structured questionnaire, a review of records and a(More)
INTRODUCTION Patients initiated on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) generally remain on medication indefinitely. A modification in the HAART regimen may become necessary because of possible acute or chronic toxicities, concomitant clinical conditions, development of virological failure or the advent of adverse drug events. The study documents(More)
INTRODUCTION Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has reduced HIV morbidity and mortality worldwide but has many adverse effects. These adverse drug reactions (ADRs) lead to discontinuations, disease progression or treatment failure. We explored the types and risk factors for ADRs in a cohort starting ART in a teaching hospital in Accra, Ghana where the main(More)
SummaryCutaneous leishmaniasis has recently been discovered in some parts of Ghana. The case of an HIV infected patient presenting with cutaneous leishmaniasis at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital is discussed. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was confirmed by histology. Also highlighted is the fact that this is the first reported case of dual infection of HIV(More)
Available evidence supports the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in decreasing the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among high-risk individuals, especially when used in combination with other behavioural preventive methods. Safety concerns about PrEP present challenges in the implementation and use of PrEP. The aim of(More)