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OBJECTIVE UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7 was recently identified as the main enzyme mediating efavirenz N-glucuronidation. In this study, we determined whether selected UGT2B7 polymorphisms could be used to enhance the prediction of efavirenz plasma concentrations from CYP2B6 and CYP2A6 genotypes. METHODS Mid-dose efavirenz plasma concentrations(More)
AIMS Interindividual variability in efavirenz pharmacokinetics is not entirely explained by the well-recognized CYP2B6 516G-->T single nucleotide polymorphism. The aim of this study was to determine whether polymorphisms in the CYP2A6 gene can be used to enhance the predictability of efavirenz concentrations in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected(More)
There are limited data on the pharmacokinetics of generic nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in native African populations, in whom they are commonly used. The authors characterized the pharmacokinetics of lamivudine (n = 27), zidovudine (n = 16), and stavudine (n = 11) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/tuberculosis (TB)-coinfected(More)
BACKGROUND Tetanus is a life threatening infection with an estimated annual global incidence of about 1 million cases and a mortality of 50%. It is very common in developing countries. The prevalence in Ghana is not known, however, cases continue to be admitted in hospitals in the country. This retrospective study was undertaken to define the(More)
There are three major clonal lineages, types I, II, and III, of Toxoplasma gondii known to cause human toxoplasmosis worldwide. Toxoplasma gondii infections have, however, not been genotyped in Ghana. This study detected the clonal types infecting immune compromised and immune competent individuals in Accra, Ghana. Blood samples were obtained from 148 HIV(More)
In Ghana it is estimated that 1.2% of HIV infections occur in young people aged 15-24 but the representation in our clinics is small. Adherence to treatment, appointment keeping and knowledge of HIV status remains a challenge. Disclosure has been shown to result in better adherence to therapy, good clinical outcomes, psychological adjustment and reduction(More)
The goal of this study was to determine the effect of CYP2B6 genetic variation on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of efavirenz (600 mg/d) in TB/HIV co-infected patients receiving concomitant rifampin, a potent CYP inducer. In the 26 patients studied, CYP2B6 c.516GG, GT, and TT genotype frequencies were 0.27, 0.50, and 0.23, respectively. Mean plasma(More)
BACKGROUND Tetanus is a life threatening infection relatively uncommon in the developed countries but occurs frequently in developing countries with case fatality rates of 40-60 %. Recent review of adult tetanus at the Korle-bu Teaching Hospital showed a high case fatality of 50%. In order to determine the factors underlying this high case fatality we(More)
Some individuals have higher efavirenz plasma concentrations during rifampin-containing tuberculosis (TB) therapy, contrary to the expected induction effect of rifampin. Among HIV-infected patients without (n = 38) and with TB on rifampin-containing therapy (n = 18), we tested the hypothesis that drug-gene interaction may explain the highly variable drug(More)