Data Set Used
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) mitigates many of the pathogenic features of type 2 diabetes, despite a short circulating half-life. PEGylation is a proven approach to prolonging the duration of action while enhancing biophysical solubility and stability. However, in the absence of a specific protein PEGylation site, chemical conjugation is inherently… (More)
In this paper, the Take-Grant Model devel-oped by Jones, Lipton, and Snyder is extended in order to represent and study hierarchical protection systems. Two major classes of hierarchical systems are identified: tree systems and acyclic systems. The first class deala with an organization that places decision-making in a single authority while the second… (More)
Many practitioners and academicians believe that data violating fourth normal form is rarely encountered. We report upon a study of forty organizational databases; nine of them contained data violating fourth normal form. Consequently, the need to understand and user fourth normal form is more important than previously believed.
FGF21 is a novel secreted protein with robust anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, and anti-atherogenic activities in preclinical species. In the current study, we investigated the signal transduction pathways downstream of FGF21 following acute administration of the growth factor to mice. Focusing on adipose tissues, we identified FGF21-mediated downstream… (More)
Hyperglucagonemia is implicated in the pathophysiology of hyperglycemia. Antagonism of the glucagon receptor (GCGR) thus represents a potential approach to diabetes treatment. Herein we report the characterization of GRA1, a novel small-molecule GCGR antagonist that blocks glucagon binding to the human GCGR (hGCGR) and antagonizes glucagon-induced… (More)
Insulin resistance is the key feature of type 2 diabetes and is manifested as attenuated insulin receptor (IR) signaling in response to same levels of insulin binding. Several small molecule IR activators have been identified and reported to exhibit insulin sensitization properties. One of these molecules, TLK19781 (Cmpd1), was investigated to examine its… (More)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0164133.].
OBJECTIVES Platensimycin (PTM) is a natural antibiotic produced by Streptomyces platensis that selectively inhibits bacterial and mammalian fatty acid synthase (FAS) without affecting synthesis of other lipids. Recently, we reported that oral administration of PTM in mouse models (db/db and db/+) with high de novo lipogenesis (DNL) tone inhibited DNL and… (More)