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Adiponectin is an adipocyte-specific secretory protein that circulates in serum as a hexamer of relatively low molecular weight (LMW) and a larger multimeric structure of high molecular weight (HMW). Serum levels of the protein correlate with systemic insulin sensitivity. The full-length protein affects hepatic gluconeogenesis through improved insulin(More)
Effective therapies for the treatment of obesity, a key element of metabolic syndrome, are urgently needed but currently lacking. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) is the rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing the conversion of saturated long-chain fatty acids into monounsaturated fatty acids, which are major components of triglycerides. In the current study, we(More)
Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma), improve insulin sensitivity in vivo, and the mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we showed that, in Zucker obese (fa/fa) rats, acute (1-day) treatment with both rosiglitazone (a TZD) and a non-TZD PPARgamma agonist (nTZD) reduced plasma free(More)
PURPOSE For many tumor cells, de novo lipogenesis is a requirement for growth and survival. A considerable body of work suggests that inhibition of this pathway may be a powerful approach to antineoplastic therapy. It has recently been shown that inhibition of various steps in the lipogenic pathway individually can induce apoptosis or loss of viability in(More)
Platensimycin (PTM) is a recently discovered broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces platensis. It acts by selectively inhibiting the elongation-condensing enzyme FabF of the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in bacteria. We report here that PTM is also a potent and highly selective inhibitor of mammalian fatty acid synthase. In contrast to two(More)
Hyperglucagonemia is implicated in the pathophysiology of hyperglycemia. Antagonism of the glucagon receptor (GCGR) thus represents a potential approach to diabetes treatment. Herein we report the characterization of GRA1, a novel small-molecule GCGR antagonist that blocks glucagon binding to the human GCGR (hGCGR) and antagonizes glucagon-induced(More)
A series of benzimidazolone carboxylic acids and oxazolidinediones were designed and synthesized in search of selective PPARγ modulators (SPPARγMs) as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with improved safety profiles relative to rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, the currently marketed PPARγ full agonist drugs.(More)
A series of chromane-2-carboxylic acid derivatives was synthesized and evaluated for PPAR agonist activities. A structure-activity relationship was developed toward PPARalpha/gamma dual agonism. As a result, (2R)-7-(3-[2-chloro-4-(4-fluorophenoxy)phenoxy]propoxy)-2-ethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid (48) was identified as a potent, structurally novel,(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonists are used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Widespread use of PPARgamma agonists has been prevented due to adverse effects including weight gain, edema, and increased risk of congestive heart failure. Selective PPARgamma modulators (SPPARgammaMs) have been identified that have(More)
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) mitigates many of the pathogenic features of type 2 diabetes, despite a short circulating half-life. PEGylation is a proven approach to prolonging the duration of action while enhancing biophysical solubility and stability. However, in the absence of a specific protein PEGylation site, chemical conjugation is inherently(More)