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Effective therapies for the treatment of obesity, a key element of metabolic syndrome, are urgently needed but currently lacking. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) is the rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing the conversion of saturated long-chain fatty acids into monounsaturated fatty acids, which are major components of triglycerides. In the current study, we(More)
Platensimycin (PTM) is a recently discovered broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces platensis. It acts by selectively inhibiting the elongation-condensing enzyme FabF of the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in bacteria. We report here that PTM is also a potent and highly selective inhibitor of mammalian fatty acid synthase. In contrast to two(More)
Hyperglucagonemia is implicated in the pathophysiology of hyperglycemia. Antagonism of the glucagon receptor (GCGR) thus represents a potential approach to diabetes treatment. Herein we report the characterization of GRA1, a novel small-molecule GCGR antagonist that blocks glucagon binding to the human GCGR (hGCGR) and antagonizes glucagon-induced(More)
A series of benzimidazolone carboxylic acids and oxazolidinediones were designed and synthesized in search of selective PPARγ modulators (SPPARγMs) as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with improved safety profiles relative to rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, the currently marketed PPARγ full agonist drugs.(More)
Adiponectin is an adipocyte-specific secretory protein that circulates in serum as a hexamer of relatively low molecular weight (LMW) and a larger multimeric structure of high molecular weight (HMW). Serum levels of the protein correlate with systemic insulin sensitivity. The full-length protein affects hepatic gluconeogenesis through improved insulin(More)
PURPOSE For many tumor cells, de novo lipogenesis is a requirement for growth and survival. A considerable body of work suggests that inhibition of this pathway may be a powerful approach to antineoplastic therapy. It has recently been shown that inhibition of various steps in the lipogenic pathway individually can induce apoptosis or loss of viability in(More)
Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma), improve insulin sensitivity in vivo, and the mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we showed that, in Zucker obese (fa/fa) rats, acute (1-day) treatment with both rosiglitazone (a TZD) and a non-TZD PPARgamma agonist (nTZD) reduced plasma free(More)
Plasma cell membrane glycoprotein-1, or ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodieterase (PC-1/ENPP1) has been shown to inhibit insulin signaling in cultured cells in vitro and in transgenic mice in vivo when overexpressed. Furthermore, both genetic polymorphism and increased expression of PC-1 have been reported to be associated with type 2 diabetes in(More)
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) mitigates many of the pathogenic features of type 2 diabetes, despite a short circulating half-life. PEGylation is a proven approach to prolonging the duration of action while enhancing biophysical solubility and stability. However, in the absence of a specific protein PEGylation site, chemical conjugation is inherently(More)