Margaret L. Brandeau

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BACKGROUND As many as 10% of Asian and Pacific Islander adults in the United States are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), and up to two thirds are unaware that they are infected. Without proper medical management and antiviral therapy, up to 25% of Asian and Pacific Islander persons with chronic HBV infection will die of liver disease. (More)
OBJECTIVES This study determined the cost-effectiveness of expanding methadone maintenance treatment for heroin addiction, particularly its effect on the HIV epidemic. METHODS We developed a dynamic epidemic model to study the effects of increased methadone maintenance capacity on health care costs and survival, measured as quality-adjusted life-years(More)
BACKGROUND The health benefits of organic foods are unclear. PURPOSE To review evidence comparing the health effects of organic and conventional foods. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE (January 1966 to May 2011), EMBASE, CAB Direct, Agricola, TOXNET, Cochrane Library (January 1966 to May 2009), and bibliographies of retrieved articles. STUDY SELECTION(More)
BACKGROUND A recent randomized, controlled trial showed that daily oral preexposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) was effective for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men (MSM). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently provided interim guidance for PrEP in MSM at high risk for HIV. Previous studies did not reach a consistent estimate of its(More)
BACKGROUND Although recent guidelines call for expanded routine screening for HIV, resources for antiretroviral therapy (ART) are limited, and all eligible persons are not currently receiving treatment. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects on the U.S. HIV epidemic of expanded ART, HIV screening, or interventions to reduce risk behavior. DESIGN Dynamic(More)
BACKGROUND Universal testing and treatment holds promise for reducing the burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in sub-Saharan Africa, but linkage from testing to treatment sites and retention in care are inadequate. METHODS We developed a simulation of the HIV epidemic and HIV disease progression in South Africa to compare the outcomes of the(More)
Traditional cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) assumes that program costs and benefits scale linearly with investment-an unrealistic assumption for epidemic control programs. This paper combines epidemic modeling with optimization techniques to determine the optimal allocation of a limited resource for epidemic control among multiple noninteracting(More)
AIMS To determine the cost-effectiveness of buprenorphine maintenance therapy for opiate addiction in the United States, particularly its effect on the HIV epidemic. DESIGN We developed a dynamic model to capture the effects of adding buprenorphine maintenance to the current opiate dependence treatment system. We evaluated incremental costs, including all(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of treating HIV-infected injection drug users (IDUs) and non-IDUs in Russia with highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART. DESIGN AND METHODS A dynamic HIV epidemic model was developed for a population of IDUs and non-IDUs. The location for the study was St. Petersburg, Russia. The adult(More)