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Both phagocytosis (of particles) and pinocytosis (of solutes) occur in macrophages. It is not known, however, whether particles, if they are small enough, can enter by pinocytosis, nor whether there is a minimum size of particle capable of triggering phagocytic uptake. These questions have been investigated by studying, in vitro, the uptake by rat(More)
A possible association between environmental exposure to benomyl and anophthalmia has been suggested. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential teratogenic effects of benomyl using the 9.5 day rat embryo culture method using rat and human serum. Explanted rat embryos were cultured in rat serum (n=121) or human serum (n=90) with differing(More)
Angiotensin II (ANG II) is increasingly recognised as a growth factor, both in its own right and through interactions with other growth factors. There is a high density of ANG II receptors in the rat fetus, especially the AT2 receptor, the function of which is still uncertain. We have now studied the effects of ANG II on growth and development in the rat(More)
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are commonly used drugs in pregnant women with epilepsy. Prenatal exposure to AEDs increases the risk of major or minor congenital malformation during embryonic development. The precise mode of action and intracellular mechanisms of these AEDs during embryonic development remains unclear. To determine relative teratogenic risk of(More)
Many maternally derived factors may be involved in the regulation of embryonic growth but the control mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Human placental lactogen (hPL) has been implicated in playing a role in the control of embryonic growth. Several investigators suggested that there may be a possible link between the effects of this hormone and(More)
In the early stages of embryonic development, many growth-promoting molecules must be provided by the maternal system. The molecules involved in growth processes may be either hormones or growth factors, or molecules that interact with such factors. The pregnancy related hormone, prolactin (PRL, MW 23 kDa) has been implicated in the control of embryonic(More)
The effect of edoferon kappa A (E-KA), a non-specific immunomodulatory and anti-neoplastic chemical substance derived from the methyl form of salicylate (acetyl salicylic acid; ASA), on mammalian embryos was studied and compared to the effects of ASA. Rat embryos were cultured in vitro from 9.5 days of gestation for 48 h. E-KA (0.1-12.8 mg/ml) and ASA(More)
Salicylates are among the oldest and most widely used drugs and are known to lead to foetal death, growth retardation and congenital abnormalities in experimental animals. In this study, the effects of acetyl salicylic acid (ASA), salicylic acid (SAL) and sodium salicylate (NaSAL) on early organogenesis and the interaction of these molecules with free(More)
A method for the culture of rat peritoneal macrophages in vitro is described, in which pinocytic uptake of colloidal [198 Au]gold, 125I--labelled poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and [14C]sucrose proceeds at contant and fairly reproducible rates for several hours. The rat of uptake of colloidal [198 Au]gold, which wxhibited some inter-batch variation, was approx. 100(More)