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Australian road and railway authorities have made a concerted effort to reduce the number of rail level crossings, particularly the higher risk passive crossings that are protected by devices such as 'give way' or 'stop' signs. To improve this situation, passive level crossings are often upgraded with active controls such as flashing red lights. Traffic(More)
Interface design is an important factor in assessing the potential effects on safety of interacting with an in-vehicle information system while driving. In the current study, the layout of information on a visual display was manipulated to explore its effect on driving performance in the context of music selection. The comparative effects of an(More)
Three accident causation models, each with their own associated approach to accident analysis, currently dominate the human factors literature. Although the models are in general agreement that accidents represent a complex, systems phenomenon, the subsequent analysis methods prescribed are very different. This paper presents a case study-based comparison(More)
Mechanical experiments were performed on isolated fibre bundles of frog semitendinosus muscle, using solutions made hypertonic by the addition of sucrose or NaC1. Muscle stiffness was measured with 1-ms step changes of length, from the plateau of an isometric tetanus. Within 20 min in hypertonic Ringer, isometric tetanus tension fell by 50% or more. The(More)
Sartorius muscle fibres of Xenopus laevis were depolarized in solutions of high K+ content and then voltage clamped in solutions in which K+ was replaced by Rb+ and(or) tetraethylammonium ion (TEA+) at pH 9. A three-microelectrode clamp system was used in which the bath was held at virtual ground using an operational amplifier in a current meter(More)
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