Margaret J. Mackinnon

Learn More
Vaccines rarely provide full protection from disease. Nevertheless, partially effective (imperfect) vaccines may be used to protect both individuals and whole populations. We studied the potential impact of different types of imperfect vaccines on the evolution of pathogen virulence (induced host mortality) and the consequences for public health. Here we(More)
The spread of resistance to chloroquine (CQ) led to its withdrawal from use in most countries in sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s. In Malawi, this withdrawal was followed by a rapid reduction in the frequency of resistance to the point where the drug is now considered to be effective once again, just nine years after its withdrawal. In this report, the(More)
Many parasites evolve to become virulent rather than benign mutualists. One of the major theoretical models of parasite virulence postulates that this is because rapid within-host replication rates are necessary for successful transmission (parasite fitness) and that virulence (damage to the host) is an unavoidable consequence of this rapid replication. Two(More)
Polymorphisms were examined in 2 Plasmodium falciparum genes, as were chloroquine responses of clones and isolates from a village in eastern Sudan. There was a significant association between an allele of the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene (pfcrt-T76) and both in vitro and in vivo resistance. There was a less significant association(More)
What stops parasites becoming ever more virulent? Conventional wisdom and most parasite-centred models of the evolution of virulence suppose that risk of host (and, hence, parasite) death imposes selection against more virulent strains. Here we selected for high and low virulence within each of two clones of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi(More)
BACKGROUND The emergence of artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum malaria in South-East Asia highlights the need for continued global surveillance of the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapies. METHODS On the Kenyan coast we studied the treatment responses in 474 children 6-59 months old with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in a randomized(More)
Evolutionary models predict that host immunity will shape the evolution of parasite virulence. While some assumptions of these models have been tested, the actual evolutionary outcome of immune selection on virulence has not. Using the mouse malaria model, Plasmodium chabaudi, we experimentally tested whether immune pressure promotes the evolution of more(More)
Individuals living in areas where malaria is endemic are repeatedly exposed to many different malaria parasite antigens. Studies on naturally acquired antibody-mediated immunity to clinical malaria have largely focused on the presence of responses to individual antigens and their associations with decreased morbidity. We hypothesized that the breadth(More)
Parasitized red blood cells (RBCs) from children suffering from severe malaria often adhere to complement receptor 1 (CR1) on uninfected RBCs to form clumps of cells known as "rosettes." Despite a well documented association between rosetting and severe malaria, it is controversial whether rosetting is a cause or a correlate of parasite virulence.(More)
Malaria parasites cause much morbidity and mortality to their human hosts. From our evolutionary perspective, this is because virulence is positively associated with parasite transmission rate. Natural selection therefore drives virulence upwards, but only to the point where the cost to transmission caused by host death begins to outweigh the transmission(More)