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This review focuses on the remodeling of brain circuitry associated with epilepsy, particularly in excitatory glutamate and inhibitory GABA systems, including alterations in synaptic efficacy, growth of new connections, and loss of existing connections. From recent studies on the kindling and status epilepticus models, which have been used most extensively(More)
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is important for regulation, differentiation, and survival of peripheral and central nervous system neurons, including basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) which degenerate in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mature NGF protein is processed from a larger precursor, proNGF. We demonstrate that proNGF is the predominant form of NGF in(More)
BACKGROUND The probiotic Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 normalizes anxiety-like behavior and hippocampal brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in mice with infectious colitis. Using a model of chemical colitis we test whether the anxiolytic effect of B. longum involves vagal integrity, and changes in neural cell function. Methods  Mice received dextran(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is critical for the function and survival of neurons that degenerate in the late stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are two forms of BDNF, the BDNF precursor (proBDNF) and mature BDNF, in human brain. Previous studies have shown that BDNF mRNA and protein, including proBDNF, are dramatically decreased in(More)
Evidence suggests that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may be important in the pathophysiology of depression, in addition to its role as a neurotrophic factor for sensory neurons. The authors conducted a series of experiments examining the behavioral profile of BDNF heterozygous knockout and wild-type mice. The heterozygous and wild-type mice did(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a senile dementia characterized by amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and synaptic and cell loss. The "amyloid cascade" hypothesis suggests that amyloid-beta (Abeta), the peptide deposited as amyloid plaques, is the primary insult in AD. However, debate continues over the mechanism of Abeta toxicity and whether fibrillar(More)
The human kallikrein gene family consists of 15 serine proteases. We examined the expression of the kallikrein genes in human cerebral cortex and hippocampus by RT-PCR and compared their expression between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and control tissue. KLK1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13 and 14 are expressed in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus. KLK9 is(More)
Nerve growth factor (NGF) acts on various classes of central and peripheral neurons to promote cell survival, stimulate neurite outgrowth and modulate differentiation. NGF is synthesized as a precursor, proNGF, which undergoes processing to generate mature NGF. It has been assumed, based on studies in the mouse submandibular gland, that NGF in vivo is(More)
Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system. One pathological characteristic is excessive neuronal loss in specific regions of the brain. Among the areas most severely affected are the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and their projection regions, the hippocampus and cortex. Neurotrophic factors,(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes the function and survival of the major neuronal types affected in Alzheimer disease, such as hippocampal, cortical and basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. We and others have demonstrated a reduction in BDNF mRNA expression in Alzheimer's disease hippocampus and cortex, which may help to explain the(More)