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Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), a rate-limiting enzyme for prostanoid synthesis, is induced during inflammation and participates in inflammation-mediated cytotoxicity. Cerebral ischemia is followed by an inflammatory reaction that plays a role in the evolution of the tissue damage. We studied whether COX-2 is induced after cerebral ischemia and if so, whether(More)
Classical lissencephaly (LIS) is a neuronal migration disorder resulting in brain malformation, epilepsy and mental retardation. Deletions or mutations of LIS1 on 17p13.3 and mutations in XLIS ( DCX ) on Xq22.3-q23 produce LIS. Direct DNA sequencing of LIS1 and XLIS was performed in 25 children with sporadic LIS and no deletion of LIS1 by fluorescence in(More)
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a prostanoid-synthesizing enzyme that contributes to the toxicity associated with inflammation, has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic target for several illnesses, ranging from osteoarthritis to Alzheimer's disease. Although COX-2 has also been linked to ischemic stroke, its role in the mechanisms of ischemic brain injury(More)
Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), an enzyme that produces toxic amounts of nitric oxide, is expressed in a number of brain pathologies, including cerebral ischemia. We used mice with a null mutation of the iNOS gene to study the role of iNOS in ischemic brain damage. Focal cerebral ischemia was produced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery(More)
Cerebral ischemia is followed by a local inflammatory response that is thought to participate in the extension of the tissue damage occurring in the postischemic period. However, the mechanisms whereby the inflammation contributes to the progression of the damage have not been fully elucidated. In models of inflammation, expression of the inducible isoform(More)
PURPOSE Since liposomal encapsulation of anticancer drugs may enhance antitumor activity while reducing toxicity in vitro, we evaluated liposomally encapsulated daunorubucin (DaunoXome; Vestar, Inc, San Dimas, CA) for safety, pharmacokinetics, and potential efficacy in patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS). PATIENTS AND METHODS Forty(More)
Detailed classification of brain malformations such as lissencephaly has led to the positional cloning of genes required for normal neuronal migration and the identification of unique molecular pathways governing brain structure. While classical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of lissencephaly involve primarily the cerebral cortex, malformations(More)
PURPOSE To compare the safety and efficacy of liposomal daunorubicin (DaunoXome; NeXstar Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Boulder, CO) with a reference regimen of doxorubicin, bleomycin, and vincristine (ABV) in advanced AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). PATIENTS AND METHODS In a prospective randomized phase III trial, 232 patients were randomized to receive(More)
The prostanoid-synthesizing enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is expressed in selected cerebral cortical neurons and is involved in synaptic signaling. We sought to determine whether COX-2 participates in the increase in cerebral blood flow produced by synaptic activity in the somatosensory cortex. In anesthetized mice, the vibrissae were stimulated(More)
Lis1 gene defects impair neuronal migration, causing the severe human brain malformation lissencephaly. Although much is known about its interactions with microtubules, microtubule-binding proteins such as CLIP-170, and with the dynein motor complex, the response of Lis1 to neuronal motility signals has not been elucidated. Lis1 deficiency is associated(More)