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Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), a rate-limiting enzyme for prostanoid synthesis, is induced during inflammation and participates in inflammation-mediated cytotoxicity. Cerebral ischemia is followed by an inflammatory reaction that plays a role in the evolution of the tissue damage. We studied whether COX-2 is induced after cerebral ischemia and if so, whether(More)
The mammalian cerebral cortex is characterized by complex patterns of anatomical and functional areas that differ markedly between species, but the molecular basis for this functional subdivision is largely unknown. Here, we show that mutations in GPR56, which encodes an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) with a large extracellular domain, cause a(More)
In contrast to cyclin D1 nulls (cD1-/-), mice without cyclin D2 (cD2-/-) lack cerebellar stellate interneurons; the reason for this is unknown. In the present study in cortex, we found a disproportionate loss of parvalbumin (PV) interneurons in cD2-/- mice. This selective reduction in PV subtypes was associated with reduced frequency of GABA-mediated(More)
Malformations of neuronal migration such as lissencephaly (agyria-pachygyria spectrum) are well-known causes of mental retardation and epilepsy that are often genetic. For example, isolated lissencephaly sequence and Miller-Dieker syndrome are caused by deletions involving a lissencephaly gene in chromosome 17p13.3, while many other malformation syndromes(More)
Classical lissencephaly (LIS) is a neuronal migration disorder resulting in brain malformation, epilepsy and mental retardation. Deletions or mutations of LIS1 on 17p13.3 and mutations in XLIS ( DCX ) on Xq22.3-q23 produce LIS. Direct DNA sequencing of LIS1 and XLIS was performed in 25 children with sporadic LIS and no deletion of LIS1 by fluorescence in(More)
Lis1 gene defects impair neuronal migration, causing the severe human brain malformation lissencephaly. Although much is known about its interactions with microtubules, microtubule-binding proteins such as CLIP-170, and with the dynein motor complex, the response of Lis1 to neuronal motility signals has not been elucidated. Lis1 deficiency is associated(More)
Regulation of neural proliferation is an essential component of brain formation and is driven by both intrinsic cell cycle and extrinsic growth and trophic molecules. Among the cell cycle proteins, understanding of the relative roles of the G1-phase active cyclins D2 and D1 (cD2 and cD1) has been hampered by lack of data regarding their expression patterns.(More)
Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), an enzyme that produces toxic amounts of nitric oxide, is expressed in a number of brain pathologies, including cerebral ischemia. We used mice with a null mutation of the iNOS gene to study the role of iNOS in ischemic brain damage. Focal cerebral ischemia was produced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery(More)
The developmental steps required to build a brain have been recognized as a distinctive sequence since the turn of the twentieth century. As marking tools for experimental embryology emerged, the cellular events of cortical histogenesis have been intensively scrutinized. On this rich backdrop, molecular genetics provides the opportunity to play out the(More)
It has long been recognized that the balance between cellular proliferation and cell death during embryogenesis is a key factor in formation of the CNS. The recent definition of molecular mechanisms that drive the cell-division cycle and programmed cell death provides an opportunity to investigate the molecular interactions that co-ordinate cell-cycle(More)