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The Cercospora nicotianae SOR1 (singlet oxygen resistance) gene was identified previously as a gene involved in resistance of this fungus to singlet-oxygen-generating phototoxins. Although homologues to SOR1 occur in organisms in four kingdoms and encode one of the most highly conserved proteins yet identified, the precise function of this protein has,(More)
Plant pathogenic fungi in eight genera produce light-activated perylene-quinone toxins that are toxic to plants via the generation of activated oxygen species, particularly singlet oxygen. Studies on the cercosporin toxin produced by Cercospora species have documented an important role for this toxin in pathogenesis of host plants. Cercosporin-generated(More)
Our previous observation that host plant extracts induce production and secretion of mannitol in the tobacco pathogen Alternaria alternata suggested that, like their animal counterparts, plant pathogenic fungi might produce the reactive oxygen quencher mannitol as a means of suppressing reactive oxygen-mediated plant defenses. The concurrent discovery that(More)
Filamentous Cercospora fungi are resistant to photosensitizing compounds that generate singlet oxygen. C. nicotianae photosensitizer-sensitive mutants were restored to full resistance by transformation with SOR1 (Singlet Oxygen Resistance 1), a gene recovered from a wild-type genomic library. SOR1 null mutants generated via targeted gene replacement(More)
Mannitol has been hypothesized to play a role in antioxidant defense. In previous work, we confirmed the presence of the two mannitol biosynthetic enzymes, mannitol dehydrogenase (MtDH) and mannitol 1-phosphate 5-dehydrogenase (MPDH), in the fungus Alternaria alternata and created disruption mutants for both enzymes. These mutants were used to investigate(More)
Cercosporin, a nonspecific toxin from Cercospora species, is a photosensitizing compound which rapidly kills plant cells in the light. Cell death appears to be due to a cercosporin-mediated peroxidation of membrane lipids. Tobacco leaf discs treated with cercosporin showed a large increase in electrolyte leakage 1 to 2 minutes after irradiation with light.(More)
We have cloned and sequenced the Cercospora nicotianae gene for the carotenoid biosynthetic enzyme phytoene dehydrogenase. Analysis of the derived amino acid sequence revealed it has greater than 50% identity with its counterpart in Neurospora crassa and approximately 30% identity with prokaryotic phytoene dehydrogenases and is related, but more distantly,(More)
The Cercospora nicotianae mutant deficient for the CRG1 transcription factor has marked reductions in both resistance and biosynthesis of the toxin cercosporin. We cloned and sequenced full-length copies of two genes, ATR1 and CnCFP, previously identified from a subtractive library between the wild type (WT) and a crg1 mutant. ATR1 is an ABC transporter(More)
ABSTRACT Transformation of plants with the nucleocapsid (N) gene of Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) provides resistance to disease development; however, information is lacking on the response of plants to natural inoculum in the field. Three tobacco cultivars were transformed with the N gene of a dahlia isolate of TSWV (TSWV-D), and plants were(More)
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, 1) and its derivatives: pyridoxal (2), pyridoxal 5-phosphate (3) and pyridoxamine (4) are important natural compounds involved in numerous biological functions. Pyridoxine appears to play a role in the resistance of the filamentous fungus Cercospora nicotianae to its own abundantly produced strong photosensitizer of singlet molecular(More)