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Our previous observation that host plant extracts induce production and secretion of mannitol in the tobacco pathogen Alternaria alternata suggested that, like their animal counterparts, plant pathogenic fungi might produce the reactive oxygen quencher mannitol as a means of suppressing reactive oxygen-mediated plant defenses. The concurrent discovery that(More)
The Cercospora nicotianae SOR1 (singlet oxygen resistance) gene was identified previously as a gene involved in resistance of this fungus to singlet-oxygen-generating phototoxins. Although homologues to SOR1 occur in organisms in four kingdoms and encode one of the most highly conserved proteins yet identified, the precise function of this protein has,(More)
Cercosporin, a photosensitizing perylenequinone toxin produced by the plant pathogenic Cercospora fungi, generates the highly toxic singlet oxygen (1O2) upon exposure to light. Cercosporin shows broad toxicity against a wide range of organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals; however, Cercospora fungi are resistant to its effects. A novel(More)
The Cercospora nicotianae mutant deficient for the CRG1 transcription factor has marked reductions in both resistance and biosynthesis of the toxin cercosporin. We cloned and sequenced full-length copies of two genes, ATR1 and CnCFP, previously identified from a subtractive library between the wild type (WT) and a crg1 mutant. ATR1 is an ABC transporter(More)
Several genera of plant pathogenic fungi produce photoactivated perylenequinone toxins involved in pathogenesis of their hosts. These toxins are photosensitizers, absorbing light energy and generating reactive oxygen species that damage the membranes of the host cells. Studies with toxin-deficient mutants and on the involvement of light in symptom(More)
Vitamin B 6 , an essential cofactor in enzymatic reactions, has only recently been linked to cellular oxidative stress. We investigated the role of this vitamin as an antioxidant in oxidative responses linked to plant defense. B 6 vitamers effectively quenched superoxide and had antioxidant activity when assayed in vitro. The de novo B 6 biosynthetic genes(More)
Mannitol has been hypothesized to play a role in antioxidant defense. In previous work, we confirmed the presence of the two mannitol biosynthetic enzymes, mannitol dehydrogenase (MtDH) and mannitol 1-phosphate 5-dehydrogenase (MPDH), in the fungus Alternaria alternata and created disruption mutants for both enzymes. These mutants were used to investigate(More)
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxal phosphate) is an essential cofactor in enzymatic reactions involved in numerous cellular processes and also plays a role in oxidative stress responses. In plants, the pathway for de novo synthesis of pyridoxal phosphate has been well characterized, however only two enzymes, pyridoxal (pyridoxine, pyridoxamine) kinase (SOS4) and(More)
Filamentous Cercospora fungi are resistant to photosensitizing compounds that generate singlet oxygen. C. nicotianae photosensitizer-sensitive mutants were restored to full resistance by transformation with SOR1 (Singlet Oxygen Resistance 1), a gene recovered from a wild-type genomic library. SOR1 null mutants generated via targeted gene replacement(More)
Fungi that are resistant or sensitive to the singlet oxygen-generating toxin cercosporin were assayed for their ability to detoxify it by reduction. Cercosporin reduction was assayed microscopically by using bandpass filters to differentiate between fluorescence emission from cercosporin and reduced cercosporin. Hyphae of the resistant Cercospora and(More)