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The regulated release of hormones and neurotransmitters is a fundamental process throughout the animal kingdom. The short time scale for the calcium triggering of vesicle fusion in regulated secretion suggests that the calcium sensor synaptotagmin and the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) membrane fusion machinery(More)
Glutamate acting on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors controls a variety of aspects of neuronal plasticity in the adult and developing brain. This review summarizes its effects on developing cerebellar granule cells. The glutamatergic mossy fibre input to cerebellar granule cells exerts a neurotrophic effect on these cells during development. The(More)
PKC (protein kinase C) has been known for many years to modulate regulated exocytosis in a wide variety of cell types. In neurons and neuroendocrine cells, PKC regulates several different stages of the exocytotic process, suggesting that these multiple actions of PKC are mediated by phosphorylation of distinct protein targets. In recent years, a variety of(More)
The release of neurotransmitter at a synapse occurs via the regulated fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane. The fusion of the two lipid bilayers is mediated by a protein complex that includes the plasma membrane target soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) attachment protein (SNAP) receptors (t-SNAREs), syntaxin 1A and(More)
nSec-1 (munc-18) is a mammalian homologue of proteins implicated in constitutive exocytosis in yeast and neurotransmission in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila. Mutant phenotypes in these species suggest that nSec-1 is likely to be required for neurotransmission. Various other data have been interpreted as suggesting that nSec-1 could also be a negative(More)
Munc18-1 plays a crucial role in regulated exocytosis in neurons and neuroendocrine cells through modulation of vesicle docking and membrane fusion. The molecular basis for Munc18 function is still unclear, as are the links with Rabs and SNARE [SNAP (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein) receptor] proteins that are also required.(More)
Membrane fusion during exocytosis and throughout the cell is believed to involve members of the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptors) family of proteins. The assembly of these proteins into a four-helix bundle may be part of the driving force for bilayer fusion. Regulated exocytosis in neurons and related(More)
Accumulating evidence suggests that the kinetics of release from single secretory vesicles can be regulated and that quantal size can be modified during fast kiss-and-run fusion. Multiple pathways for vesicle retrieval have been identified involving clathrin and dynamin. It has been unclear whether dynamin could participate in a fast kiss-and-run process to(More)
Neuronal Ca2+ sensor 1 (NCS-1) is the mammalian homologue of the Ca2+-binding protein frequenin previously implicated in regulation of neurotransmission in Drosophila (Pongs, O., Lindemeier, J., Zhu, X. R., Theil, T., Endelkamp, D., Krah-Jentgens, I., Lambrecht, H.-G., Koch, K. W., Schwemer, J., Rivosecchi, R., Mallart, A., Galceran, J. , Canal, I., Barbas,(More)