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Previous sequence analyses of the rotavirus nonstructural NSP4 from human and some animal rotavirus strains revealed the presence of three distinct NSP4 alleles or genetic groups. To examine the species of origin relatedness and diversity of NSP4, the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the gene encoding the NSP4 from 15 animal rotavirus strains(More)
Rotaviruses infect mature, differentiated enterocytes of the small intestine and, by an unknown mechanism, escape the gastrointestinal tract and cause viremia. The neonatal rat model of rotavirus infection was used to determine the kinetics of viremia, spread, and pathology of rotavirus in extraintestinal organs. Five-day-old rat pups were inoculated(More)
Viruses that infect cells in the gastrointestinal tract are well suited for examining the immune response to oral delivery of antigen and for exploring the advantages and pitfalls of oral vaccines. Norwalk virus (NV) (family Caliciviridae, genus Calicivirus) causes acute gastroenteritis in all age groups. The NV capsid is composed of 180 copies of a single(More)
Heterotypic passive immunity to IND (P/5/G6) bovine rotavirus (BRV) was evaluated. Three groups of calves (n = 5 per group) were fed 1% pooled colostrum supplements (birth to 7 days of age) from BRV seropositive cows vaccinated with recombinant SA11(P/2/G3) rotavirus-like particles (VLPs), recombinant SA11 rotavirus core-like particles (CLPs), or(More)
Simian rhesus rotavirus (RRV) is the only identified heterologous (non-lapine) rotavirus strain capable of productive replication at a high inoculum dose of virus (>10(8) p.f.u.) in rabbits. To evaluate whether lower doses of RRV would productively infect rabbits and to obtain an estimate of the 50% infectious dose, rotavirus antibody-free rabbits were(More)
Fecal samples from 86 foals with diarrhea were examined by electron microscopy during a 2.5 year period. Of these, 26 (30%) were positive for rotavirus. All of the cases were found in epizootic areas. The disease was produced in an experimental foal by inoculation via stomach tube of a bacteria-free fecal filtrate containing rotavirus. Examination of(More)
BACKGROUND Rotavirus infection is thought to be confined to the intestine. Reports of rotavirus RNA in the cerebral spinal fluid and serum of children infected with rotavirus suggest the possibility that rotavirus escapes the intestine into the circulatory system. We assessed whether rotavirus antigen, RNA, or both, were present in serum samples from(More)
Recombinant Norwalk virus-like particles (rNV VLPs) produced in insect cells were evaluated as an oral immunogen in CD1 and BALB/c mice by monitoring rNV-specific serum total and subclass immunoglobulin G (IgG) and intestinal IgA responses. Dose and kinetics of response were evaluated in the presence and absence of the mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin (CT).(More)
Some rotavirus strains, including vaccine candidates, have been demonstrated to cause hepatitis in immunodeficient and malnourished mice and to grow in human liver cells. To determine whether rotavirus spreads outside the intestine in naturally infected children, we examined tissues from four immunodeficient children affected with severe combined(More)
The recognition that rotaviruses are the major cause of life-threatening diarrheal disease and significant morbidity in young children has focused efforts on disease prevention and control of these viruses. Although the correlates of protection in children remain unclear, some studies indicate that serotype-specific antibody is important. Based on this(More)