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 Previous sequence analyses of the rotavirus nonstructural NSP4 from human and some animal rotavirus strains revealed the presence of three distinct NSP4 alleles or genetic groups. To examine the species of origin relatedness and diversity of NSP4, the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the gene encoding the NSP4 from 15 animal rotavirus strains(More)
The genes encoding the outer capsid VP4 proteins of four lapine rotavirus strains, three isolated in the US (ALA, C-11 and BAP-2) and one isolated in Japan (R-2) were sequenced, and the predicted amino acid (aa) sequence was compared to all known rotavirus genotypes. A high degree of aa identity (96.8–98.9%) was found among the American lapine strains,(More)
We performed experiments to determine whether parenteral immunization with SA11 rotavirus can induce active protective immunity in a rabbit model of rotavirus infection. After one or two intramuscular injections of 1 ml of live or formalin-inactivated SA11 virus, we evaluated the mucosal and serologic immune response and protection from challenge with a(More)
We examined the humoral immune response to rotavirus infection in specific pathogen-free rabbits inoculated and challenged orally with rabbit Ala rotavirus (7.5 x 10(5) to 1 x 10(7) PFU). The humoral immune response in both serologic and mucosal samples was monitored by using total antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), isotype-specific(More)
A new small animal model was developed to study parameters of rotavirus infections, including the active immune response. Seronegative New Zealand White rabbits (neonatal to 4 months old) were inoculated orally with cultivatable rabbit rotavirus strains Ala, C11, and R2 and with the heterologous simian strain SA11. The course of infection was evaluated by(More)
We have evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of rotavirus subunit vaccines administered by mucosal routes. Virus-like particles (VLPs) produced by self-assembly of individual rotavirus structural proteins coexpressed by baculovirus recombinants in insect cells were the subunit vaccine tested. We first compared the immunogenicities and(More)
BACKGROUND Rotavirus infection is thought to be confined to the intestine. Reports of rotavirus RNA in the cerebral spinal fluid and serum of children infected with rotavirus suggest the possibility that rotavirus escapes the intestine into the circulatory system. We assessed whether rotavirus antigen, RNA, or both, were present in serum samples from(More)
We have shown that rotavirus 2/6 viruslike particles composed of proteins VP2 and VP6 (2/6-VLPs) administered to mice intranasally with cholera toxin (CT) induced protection from rotavirus challenge, as measured by virus shedding. Since it is unclear if CT will be approved for human use, we evaluated the adjuvanticity of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin(More)
Rotavirus subunit vaccines are being evaluated for use in humans. The virus-like particles (VLPs) for these vaccines are produced in insect cells coinfected with combinations of baculovirus recombinants expressing bovine RIF VP2 and simian SA11, VP4, VP6, or VP7 rotavirus proteins. VLPs were administered parenterally to mice and rabbits, and the(More)
Virus-like particles (VLPs) are being evaluated as a candidate rotavirus vaccine. Rotavirus VLPs composed of simian SA11 strain VP2 and VP6 proteins (homologous 2/6-VLPs) were produced by cloning the rotavirus simian SA11 genes 2 and 6 into a single baculovirus transfer vector (pAcAB4). The overall yield of homologous 2/6-VLPs produced with the dual(More)