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One of the most common microsatellites in eukaryotes consists of tandem arrays [usually 15-50 base pairs (bp) in length] of the dinucleotide GT. We examined the rates of instability for poly GT tracts of 15, 33, 51, 99 and 105 bp in wild-type and mismatch repair-deficient strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Rates of instability increased more than two(More)
In the nuclear genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, simple, repetitive DNA sequences (microsatellites) mutate at rates much higher than nonrepetitive sequences. Most of these mutations are deletions or additions of repeat units. The yeast mitochondrial genome also contains many microsatellites. To examine the stability of these sequences, we constructed a(More)
The full activity of a recombination initiation site located 5' of HIS4 requires the binding of the transcription factors RAP1, BAS1, and BAS2. Two RAP1 binding sites can substitute for the wild-type initiation site. A 51-bp region of telomeric DNA inserted upstream of either HIS4 or ARG4 very strongly stimulates recombination. We suggest that the ability(More)
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, certain genomic regions have very high levels of meiotic recombination (hot spots). The hot spot activity associated with the HIS4 gene requires the Bas1p transcription factor. To determine whether this relationship between transcription factor binding and hot spot activity is general, we used DNA microarrays to map(More)
Yeast strains with mutations in both TEL1 and MEC1 have short telomeres and elevated rates of chromosome deletions. By using a PCR assay, we demonstrate that mec1 tel1 strains also have telomere-telomere fusions (T-TFs). T-TFs require Lig4p (a ligase required for nonhomologous end-joining DNA repair). The highest rates of T-TFs are found in strains with(More)
When the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was transformed with DNA that shares no homology to the genome, three classes of transformants were obtained. In the most common class, the DNA was inserted as the result of a reaction that appears to require base pairing between the target sequence and the terminal few base pairs of the transforming DNA fragment. In(More)
Bioethanol is a biofuel produced mainly from the fermentation of carbohydrates derived from agricultural feedstocks by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One of the most widely adopted strains is PE-2, a heterothallic diploid naturally adapted to the sugar cane fermentation process used in Brazil. Here we report the molecular genetic analysis of a PE-2(More)
In eukaryotes, a family of related protein kinases (the ATM family) is involved in regulating cellular responses to DNA damage and telomere length. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two members of this family, TEL1 and MEC1, have functionally redundant roles in both DNA damage repair and telomere length regulation. Strains with mutations in both genes(More)
We examined the stability of microsatellites of different repeat unit lengths in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains deficient in DNA mismatch repair. The msh2 and msh3 mutations destabilized microsatellites with repeat units of 1, 2, 4, 5, and 8 bp; a poly(G) tract of 18 bp was destabilized several thousand-fold by the msh2 mutation and about 100-fold by(More)
The double-strand break repair (DSBR) model of recombination predicts that heteroduplexes will be formed in regions that flank the double-strand break (DSB) site and that the resulting intermediate is resolved to generate either crossovers or noncrossovers for flanking markers. Previous studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, however, failed to detect(More)