Margaret Callahan

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In this study, we describe two cases of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) intersubtype superinfection with CRF01_AE and subtype B strains, which occurred in two injection drug users participating in a prospective cohort study in Bangkok, Thailand. In both cases, the superinfecting strain was detected by molecular and serologic analyses several(More)
Normal serum biochemistry values are frequently obtained from studies of captive sedentary (zoo) or free-ranging (wild) animals. It is frequently assumed that values obtained from these two populations are directly referable to each other. We tested this assumption using 20 captive gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Minnesota, USA, and 11 free-ranging gray wolves(More)
Cardiac chamber enlargement and hypertrophy are normal physiologic responses to repetitive endurance exercise activity in human beings and domestic dogs. Whether similar changes occur in wild animals as a consequence of increased activity is unknown. We found that free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus, n = 11), the archetypical endurance athlete, have(More)
Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the(More)
Adult wolves (Canis lupus) were immobilized with 6.6 mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride (KET) and 2.2 mg/kg xylazine hydrochloride (XYL) administered intramuscularly. Induction time was 4.6 +/- 0.3 min (mean +/- SE). Immobilization resulted in significant bradycardia and hypertension (P less than 0.05). Twenty min after induction, the wolves were given 0.05-0.60(More)
Diazepam doses of 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg/kg induced feeding in sated gray wolves in a dose-dependent manner (p less than 0.001). Neither 0.8 mg/kg of the benzodiazepine antagonist, beta-CCP (p = 0.36), nor 0.8 mg/kg of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist, beta-CCE (p = 0.85), decreased the diazepam-induced hyperphagia. Five of 6 naive wolves (p = 0.003) ate(More)
Captive gray wolves (Canis lupus) were immobilized (loss of consciousness) with 2.0 mg/kg xylazine hydrochloride (XYL) and 0.4 mg/kg butorphanol tartrate (BUT) administered intramuscularly. Induction time was 11.8 +/- 0.8 min (mean +/- SE). Immobilization resulted in bradycardia, respiratory depression, and normotension. Fifteen min after induction, six(More)
Radio transmitters were surgically implanted into the abdomens of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Blood samples were taken before, immediately after, and 8 hr after surgery and analyzed for hormonal, biochemical, electrolyte and hematologic changes. Samples were taken at the same times from control foxes. Adrenocorticotropin increased after surgery (P less than(More)
We conducted a series of experiments to examine the efficacy of Telazol (TEL) for immobilization of captive gray wolves (Canis lupus). Ten wolves were immobilized with either 5 or 10 mg/kg TEL. There was no difference in induction time (6.5 +/- 0.8 versus 5.8 +/- 1.2 min; P = 0.63) between the two doses, but the time to initial arousal was longer for the(More)