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The impending widespread use of transgenic crop plants encoding a single insecticidal toxin protein of Bacillus thuringiensis has focused attention on the perceived risk of rapid selection of resistance in target insects. We have used Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis toxins as a model system and determined the speed and magnitude of evolution of(More)
The 2362 strain of Bacillus sphaericus (Bs) Neide is a highly mosquitocidal bacterium used in commercial bacterial larvicides primarily to control mosquitoes of the genus Culex. Unfortunately, Bs is at high risk for selecting resistance in mosquito populations, because its binary toxin apparently only binds to a single receptor type on midgut microvilli. A(More)
Survival of the threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, differed among marshes in a demonstration 9.9-ha multipurpose constructed treatment wetland designed to improve the quality of secondary-treated municipal wastewater in southern California. At a mean loading rate of 3.3 kg NH4-N ha(-1) d(-1) (6 kg total N ha(-1) d(-1)), the suitability of the(More)
Two highly active esterases, A2 and B2, were isolated in SeLax, a strain of Culex quinquefasciatus Say from California which demonstrated resistance levels of 19, 14, and 4.3 times to the organophosphate insecticides chlorpyrifos, temephos, and malathion, respectively. Selection of SeLax by temephos during 31 generations increased resistance to this(More)
The 2362 strain of Bacillus sphaericus, which produces a binary toxin highly active against Culex mosquitoes, has been developed recently as a commercial larvicide. It is being used currently in operational mosquito control programs in several countries including Brazil, France, India, and the United States. Laboratory studies have shown that mosquitoes can(More)
A novel mosquitocidal bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan, and one of its toxins, Cry11B, in a recombinant B. thuringiensis strain were evaluated for cross-resistance with strains of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus that are resistant to single and multiple toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. The levels of(More)
A previously untreated field population of Culex quinquefasciatus Say, collected near Bakersfield, CA, was subjected to intensive laboratory selection with the bacterial insecticide Bacillus sphaericus Neide (strain 2362) at a level producing 95% mortality. Resistance rapidly appeared and resistance levels increased such that fourth instars of generation 12(More)
Populations of Culex pipiens were sampled from 8 locations in Cyprus between 1987 and 1993. All population samples generally revealed organophosphate resistance to malathion, temephos, chlorpyrifos, fenthion, dichlorvos, and pirimiphos methyl, in decreasing order of magnitude. Of 7 populations assessed with the carbamate propoxur, all proved to be resistant(More)
Culex pipiens pipiens L. populations on Cyprus were sampled over a 6-yr period from 2002 to 2008 to evaluate the status of insecticide resistance toward the insecticides temephos, chlorpyrifos, and permethrin and to study susceptibility levels toward the recently introduced bacterial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis De Barjac and the(More)
Cry proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis are selective biodegradable insecticides used increasingly in bacterial insecticides and transgenic plants as alternatives to synthetic chemical insecticides. However, the potential for development of resistance and cross-resistance in target insect populations to Cry proteins used alone or in combination(More)