Margaret C. Wirth

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The 2362 strain of Bacillus sphaericus (Bs) Neide is a highly mosquitocidal bacterium used in commercial bacterial larvicides primarily to control mosquitoes of the genus Culex. Unfortunately, Bs is at high risk for selecting resistance in mosquito populations, because its binary toxin apparently only binds to a single receptor type on midgut microvilli. A(More)
israelensis subsp. Bacillus thuringienisis Toxins of Culicidae) Resistant to Single or Multiple (Diptera: Culex quinquefasciatus in jegathesan subsp.
The 2362 strain of Bacillus sphaericus, which produces a binary toxin highly active against Culex mosquitoes, has been developed recently as a commercial larvicide. It is being used currently in operational mosquito control programs in several countries including Brazil, France, India, and the United States. Laboratory studies have shown that mosquitoes can(More)
Survival of the threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, differed among marshes in a demonstration 9.9-ha multipurpose constructed treatment wetland designed to improve the quality of secondary-treated municipal wastewater in southern California. At a mean loading rate of 3.3 kg NH4-N ha(-1) d(-1) (6 kg total N ha(-1) d(-1)), the suitability of the(More)
Two insecticidal bacteria are used as larvicides to control larvae of nuisance and vector mosquitoes in many countries, Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis and B. sphaericus. Field studies show both are effective, but serious resistance, as high as 50 000-fold, has evolved where B. sphaericus is used against Culex mosquitoes. To improve efficacy and(More)
Two mosquitocidal toxins (Mtx) of Bacillus sphaericus, which are produced during vegetative growth, were investigated for their potential to increase toxicity and reduce the expression of insecticide resistance through their interactions with other mosquitocidal proteins. Mtx-1 and Mtx-2 were fused with glutathione S-transferase and produced in Escherichia(More)
An urgent need exists for new agents to control mosquito vectors of disease. Mosquito larvicides based on the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) or B. sphaericus (Bs) are effective in many habitats, but use is limited by their high cost. Moreover, mosquito resistance evolves rapidly to Bs where it is used intensively. The efficacy of(More)
Mendelian crosses were used to study the mode of inheritance of Cry toxin resistance in a Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) colony (CqAB11A) that evolved insecticide resistance under laboratory selection with a deletion mutant of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis de Barjac lacking the Cyt1Aa toxin component but containing its three(More)
Mendelian crosses were used to analyze the patterns of inheritance of Cry-toxin resistance in two colonies of Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae resistant to bacterial toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis de Barjac. Resistance levels exceeded 1000-fold at 95% lethal concentration of the CryllAa-resistant colony (Cq11A). F1 offspring(More)