Margaret C. Wirth

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The 2362 strain of Bacillus sphaericus (Bs) Neide is a highly mosquitocidal bacterium used in commercial bacterial larvicides primarily to control mosquitoes of the genus Culex. Unfortunately, Bs is at high risk for selecting resistance in mosquito populations, because its binary toxin apparently only binds to a single receptor type on midgut microvilli. A(More)
The impending widespread use of transgenic crop plants encoding a single insecticidal toxin protein of Bacillus thuringiensis has focused attention on the perceived risk of rapid selection of resistance in target insects. We have used Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis toxins as a model system and determined the speed and magnitude of evolution of(More)
Cry proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis are selective biodegradable insecticides used increasingly in bacterial insecticides and transgenic plants as alternatives to synthetic chemical insecticides. However, the potential for development of resistance and cross-resistance in target insect populations to Cry proteins used alone or in combination(More)
The 2362 strain of Bacillus sphaericus, which produces a binary toxin highly active against Culex mosquitoes, has been developed recently as a commercial larvicide. It is being used currently in operational mosquito control programs in several countries including Brazil, France, India, and the United States. Laboratory studies have shown that mosquitoes can(More)
Bacterial insecticides have been used for the control of nuisance and vector mosquitoes for more than two decades. Nevertheless, due primarily to their high cost and often only moderate efficacy, these insecticides remain of limited use in tropical countries where mosquito-borne diseases are prevalent. Recently, however, recombinant DNA techniques have been(More)
Insecticide resistance to the microbial insecticides Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) and Bacillus sphaericus (Bs) represents a serious threat to their success. Available evidence indicates that the risk for resistance to Bti is low due to the makeup of its parasporal crystal, which contains Cyt1A, Cry4A, Cry4B, and Cry11A toxic proteins.(More)
A novel mosquitocidal bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan, and one of its toxins, Cry11B, in a recombinant B. thuringiensis strain were evaluated for cross-resistance with strains of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus that are resistant to single and multiple toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. The levels of(More)
Bacillus sphaericus is a mosquitocidal bacterium recently developed as a commercial larvicide that is used worldwide to control pestiferous and vector mosquitoes. Whereas B. sphaericus is highly active against larvae of Culex and Anopheles mosquitoes, it is virtually nontoxic to Aedes aegypti, an important vector species. In the present study, we evaluated(More)