Learn More
The role of specific gut microbes in shaping body composition remains unclear. We transplanted fecal microbiota from adult female twin pairs discordant for obesity into germ-free mice fed low-fat mouse chow, as well as diets representing different levels of saturated fat and fruit and vegetable consumption typical of the U.S. diet. Increased total body and(More)
Dietary estrogens, such as lignans, are similar in structure to endogenous sex steroid hormones and may act in vivo to alter hormone metabolism and subsequent cancer risk. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary intake of a lignan-rich plant food (flaxseed) on urinary lignan excretion in postmenopausal women. This randomized,(More)
Dietary isoflavone and lignan phytoestrogens are potential chemopreventive agents. This has led to a need to monitor exposure to these compounds in human populations and to determine which components of a mixed diet contribute to the exposure. Typically, urinary isoflavonoid excretion is associated with soy consumption and that of lignans is associated with(More)
Lignans and isoflavonoid phytoestrogens, produced from plant precursors by colonic bacteria, may protect against certain cancers. We examined the effects of flaxseed consumption on urinary lignans and isoflavonoids. Eighteen women consumed their usual omnivorous diets for three menstrual cycles and their usual diets supplemented with flaxseed powder (10(More)
Urinary lignan and isoflavonoid excretion were examined in 11 men and 9 women consuming four nine-day controlled experimental diets: basal (vegetable free), carotenoid vegetable (carrot and spinach), cruciferous vegetable (broccoli and cauliflower), and soy (tofu and textured vegetable protein product). Three-day urine collections (Days 7-9) were analyzed(More)
The flavonoid quercetin, or its metabolites, inhibit chemical carcinogenesis in rodents and may have a role in the prevention of human cancers. Quercetin exposure in human populations results from the dietary intake of various plant foods; high concentrations of quercetin are found in apples, onions, tea, and red wine. Determination of the relationship(More)
Lactase-deficient subjects more effectively digest lactose in yogurt than lactose in other dairy products, apparently due to yogurt microbial beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) which is active in the GI tract. We evaluated the effects of buffering capacity of yogurt, gastric pH, and microbial cell disruption on beta-gal activity and lactose digestion. Three(More)
OBJECTIVE In an attempt to improve the nutritional value of animal fats (including milkfat and lard), two technological approaches (i.e., cholesterol removal by steam distillation and linoleic acid enrichment by addition of safflower oil) were tested for cholesterolemic effects in a cohort of 29 older women (age 68 +/- 7 years). METHODS Test fat sources(More)
Midfollicular and midluteal dietary intakes of 18 women were evaluated between four and six ovulatory menstrual cycles. Phase lengths were established by basal body temperatures and urinary luteinizing hormone excretion. Midfollicular and midluteal diet records were collected 6-8 d after menstrual onset and 6-8 d after ovulation, respectively. Significant(More)
Microbial-derived β-galactosidase (β-gal) enzyme preparations improvein vivo lactose digestion and tolerance through enhanced gastrointestinal digestion of lactose. Three different β-gal preparations, Lactogest (soft gel capsule), Lactaid (caplet), and DairyEase (chewable tablet) and placebo were fed to lactose maldigesters with either 20 g or 50 g of(More)