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We have determined the DNA sequence of the long unique region (UL) in the genome of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strain 17. The UL sequence contained 107,943 residues and had a base composition of 66.9% G + C. Together with our previous work, this completes the sequence of HSV-1 DNA, giving a total genome length of 152,260 residues of base(More)
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) and Schwann cells provide a cellular environment that promotes axonal outgrowth in several models of CNS injury. However, they exhibit different properties when in contact with astrocytes. Schwann cells, but not OECs, induce characteristics that typify hypertrophy in astrocytes and exhibit a poor capacity to migrate within(More)
Cell migration on extracellular matrix requires the turnover of integrin-dependent adhesions. The nonreceptor tyrosine kinases Src and FAK regulate focal-adhesion turnover by poorly understood mechanisms. ERK/MAP kinase-mediated activation of the protease Calpain 2 also promotes focal-adhesion turnover; however, it is not known if this is linked to the(More)
BACKGROUND The ability of a cell to polarize and move is governed by remodeling of the cellular adhesion/cytoskeletal network that is in turn controlled by the Rho family of small GTPases. However, it is not known what signals lie downstream of Rac1 and Cdc42 during peripheral actin and adhesion remodeling that is required for directional migration. (More)
Previous work has shown that a novel protein kinase is induced after infection of cultured cells with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Separately, it has been reported that the protein encoded by HSV-1 gene US3 shows similarity in its amino acid sequence to members of the protein kinase family of eukaryotes. We have investigated the possibility that(More)
Here we describe a mechanism that cancer cells use to survive when flux through the Src/FAK pathway is severely perturbed. Depletion of FAK, detachment of FAK-proficient cells or expression of non-phosphorylatable FAK proteins causes sequestration of active Src away from focal adhesions into intracellular puncta that co-stain with several autophagy(More)
After injury, the CNS undergoes an astrocyte stress response characterized by reactive astrocytosis/proliferation, boundary formation, and increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) expression. Previously, we showed that in vitro astrocytes exhibit this stress response when in contact with Schwann cells but(More)
Transcription of HSV immediate early genes is stimulated by a virus structural protein, Vmw65, in a process that requires specific recognition of the sequence TAATGARAT (R = purine). Upon incubation of nuclear extracts of HSV-infected cells with a short DNA fragment containing TAATGARAT, a novel virus-induced protein-DNA complex (named IEC) was detected.(More)
BRAF and MEK inhibitors are effective in BRAF mutant melanoma, but most patients eventually relapse with acquired resistance, and others present intrinsic resistance to these drugs. Resistance is often mediated by pathway reactivation through receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/SRC-family kinase (SFK) signaling or mutant NRAS, which drive paradoxical(More)
We have isolated Swiss 3T3 subclones that are resistant to the mitogenic and morphological transforming effects of v-Src as a consequence of aberrant translocation of the oncoprotein under low serum conditions. In chicken embryo and NIH 3T3 fibroblasts under similar conditions, v-Src rapidly translocates from the perinuclear region to the focal adhesions(More)