Margaret C. Cummings

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Although the presence of axillary node metastases in breast cancer is a key prognostic indicator and may influence treatment decisions, a significant proportion of patients diagnosed as axillary node negative (ANN) using standard histopathological techniques may have occult nodal metastases (OMs). A combination of limited step-sectioning (4 x 100 microns(More)
BACKGROUND The ATM gene encoding a putative protein kinase is mutated in ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), an autosomal recessive disorder with a predisposition for cancer. Studies of A-T families suggest that female heterozygotes have an increased risk of breast cancer compared with noncarriers. However, neither linkage analyses nor mutation studies have(More)
Carcinoma of the breast is thought to evolve through a sequential progression from normal to proliferative epithelium and eventually into carcinoma. Here lumpectomy specimens from five patients were studied, selected for the presence of ductal hyperplasia without atypia, atypical ductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ, and invasive ductal carcinoma.(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor-B (VEGF-B) is closely related to VEGF-A, an effector of blood vessel growth during development and disease and a strong candidate for angiogenic therapies. To further study the in vivo function of VEGF-B, we have generated Vegfb knockout mice (Vegfb(-/-)). Unlike Vegfa knockout mice, which die during embryogenesis,(More)
Classification of rare missense variants as neutral or disease causing is a challenge and has important implications for genetic counseling. A multifactorial likelihood model for classification of unclassified variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 has previously been developed, which uses data on co-occurrence of the unclassified variant with pathogenic mutations in(More)
The molecular mechanisms involved in the generation of epithelial ovarian cancers are poorly understood, but evidence suggests that the different histological subtypes may arise from independent tumorigenic events. beta-Catenin is emerging as an important oncogene in the transformation of a number of epithelial cancers, and mutations have been reported in a(More)
BACKGROUND 10% of sporadic colorectal cancers are characterised by a low level of microsatellite instability (MSI-L). These are not thought to differ substantially from microsatelite-stable (MSS) cancers, but MSI-L and MSS cancers are distinguished clinicopathologically and in their spectrum of genetic alterations from cancers showing high level(More)
This is the first study to describe the association between expression of MUC1 and MUC2 mucins and prognosis in ovarian cancer. Paraffin sections of epithelial ovarian tumours (n = 182: 29 benign, 21 low malignant potential, and 132 invasive tumours) were analysed immunohistochemically for expression of MUC1 and MUC2 mucin core proteins. Most benign, low(More)
Metastases to the brain from breast cancer have a high mortality, and basal-like breast cancers have a propensity for brain metastases. However, the mechanisms that allow cells to colonize the brain are unclear. We used morphology, immunohistochemistry, gene expression and somatic mutation profiling to analyze 39 matched pairs of primary breast cancers and(More)
Treatment options for patients with brain metastases (BMs) have limited efficacy and the mortality rate is virtually 100%. Targeted therapy is critically under-utilized, and our understanding of mechanisms underpinning metastatic outgrowth in the brain is limited. To address these deficiencies, we investigated the genomic and transcriptomic landscapes of 36(More)