Margaret A. Tolbert

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In situ measurements of the relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi) and of nitric acid (HNO3) were made in both natural and contrail cirrus clouds in the upper troposphere. At temperatures lower than 202 kelvin, RHi values show a sharp increase to average values of over 130% in both cloud types. These enhanced RHi values are attributed to the presence(More)
An organic haze layer in the upper atmosphere of Titan plays a crucial role in the atmospheric composition and climate of that moon. Such a haze layer may also have existed on the early Earth, providing an ultraviolet shield for greenhouse gases needed to warm the planet enough for life to arise and evolve. Despite the implications of such a haze layer,(More)
The mechanism of ice nucleation to form Type 2 PSCs is important for controlling the ice particle size and hence the possible dehydration in the polar winter stratosphere. This paper probes heterogeneous ice nucleation on sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT). Laboratory experiments were performed using a thin-film, high-vacuum apparatus in which the condensed(More)
Article is made available in accordance with the publisher's policy and may be subject to US copyright law. Please refer to the publisher's site for terms of use. The MIT Faculty has made this article openly available. Please share how this access benefits you. Your story matters. [1] In this study chemical compositions of background aerosol and ice nuclei(More)
[1] Large (>2 mm diameter) HNO 3-containing polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles were measured in situ by the NOAA NO y instrument on board the NASA ER-2 aircraft during seven flights in the 1999/2000 Arctic winter vortex. Here we discuss the detection of these large PSC particles, their spatial distribution, the ambient conditions under which they(More)
[1] Glyoxal reacts with methylamine in drying cloud droplet/ aerosol surrogates to form high molecular mass oligomers along with smaller amounts of 1,3-dimethylimidazole and light-absorbing compounds. The patterns observed by high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry indicate that oligomers form from repeated imine units. The reactions are(More)
While water insoluble organics are prevalent in the atmosphere, it is not clear how the presence of such species alters the chemical and physical properties of atmospheric aerosols. Here we use a combination of FTIR spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS) to characterize ammonium sulfate particles coated with(More)
Field observations of atmospheric aerosols have established that organic compounds compose a large fraction of the atmospheric aerosol mass. However, the physical/chemical pathway by which organic compounds are incorporated into atmospheric aerosols remains unclear. The potential role of acid-catalyzed reactions of organic compounds on acidic aerosols has(More)
Using an aerosol flow tube apparatus, we have studied the effects of aliphatic aldehydes (C 3 to C 10) and ke-tones (C 3 and C 9) on ice nucleation in sulfuric acid aerosols. Mixed aerosols were prepared by combining an organic vapor flow with a flow of sulfuric acid aerosols over a small mixing time (∼60 s) at room temperature. No acid-catalyzed reactions(More)