Margaret A. Ponder

Learn More
We have analysed 118 families with inherited medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) for mutations of the RET proto–oncogene. These included cases of multiple endocrine neoplasia types 2A (MEN 2A) and 2B (MEN 2B) and familial MTC (FMTC). Mutations at one of 5 cysteines in the extracellular domain were found in 97% of patients with MEN 2A and 86% with FMTC but not(More)
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant condition affecting around one in 3000 live births. The manifestations of this condition are extremely variable, even within families, and genetic counselling is consequently difficult with regard to prognosis. Individuals with NF1 are acknowledged to be at increased risk of malignancy. Several studies(More)
The susceptibility loci for the three multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2 syndromes have been mapped to the region of chromosome 10q11.2 containing the RET proto-oncogene, which codes for a receptor tyrosine kinase. The majority of MEN 2A and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma results from missense mutations within one of five cysteine codons in the(More)
Von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis (NF-1) is a common autosomal dominant disorder. The estimated new mutation rate (1 x 10(-4] is one of the highest for a human disorder. Here we report that in 12 of 14 families we have analysed, the new mutation is of paternal origin. This result is similar to that recently obtained for retinoblastoma. In other genetic(More)
Neurofibromatosis (NF) type 1 (NF1) is notable for its variable expression. To determine whether variation in expression has an inherited component, we examined 175 individuals in 48 NF families, including six MZ twin pairs. Three quantitative traits were scored--number of café-au-lait patches, number of cutaneous neurofibromas, and head circumference; and(More)
Mutation screening in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) families has long been hampered by the complexity of the NF1 gene. By using a novel multi-track screening strategy, 67 NF1 families (54 two-generation, 13 three-generation) with a de novo mutation in the germline of the first generation were studied with two extragenic and 11 intragenic markers. The(More)
OBJECTIVE To delineate the clinical phenotype, molecular basis, and implications for screening in patients and families with multiple schwannomas not generally involving the cranium. METHODS As part of a United Kingdom clinical and genetic study of type 2 neurofibromatosis (NF2) patients and families with multiple schwannomas who do not fulfil diagnostic(More)
Germline mutations within one of six codons of the RET proto-oncogene account for the majority of cases of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A and type 2B and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC). MEN 2A and FMTC mutations characterised thus far occur exclusively in the cysteine-rich domain of the extracellular region of RET. We now report a(More)
Neurofibromatosis type 1 is one of the most common inherited disorders with an incidence of 1 in 3000. The search for NF1 mutations has been hampered by the overall size of the gene, the large number of exons, and the high mutation rate. To date, fewer than 90 mutations have been reported to the NF1 mutation analysis consortium and the details on 76(More)
Many gene carriers for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2a (MEN 2a) do not manifest the disease, even into old age. Thus, a negative family history in a patient presenting with medullary thyroid carcinoma does not reliably exclude familial disease. Data are reported for the probability that the MEN 2a gene will either have manifested clinically or be(More)