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The aim of this study was to investigate the functional anatomy of distributed cortical and subcortical motor areas in the human brain that participate in the central control of overlearned complex sequential unimanual finger movements. On the basis of previous research in nonhuman primates, a principal involvement of basal ganglia medial premotor loops(More)
Motor imagery paradigms can be used to investigate motor preparation. We used positron emission tomography to compare regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with Parkinson's disease and normal controls under three conditions: rest, motor imagery and motor execution. In controls, imagery activated bilateral dorsolateral and mesial frontal cortex,(More)
Supplementary motor area and right dorsal prefrontal cortex activation in Parkinson's disease is selectively impaired during volitional limb movements. Since posteroventral pallidotomy improves motor performance in Parkinson's disease patients 'off' medication (i.e. off medication for 9-12 h), we hypothesized that it would also concomitantly increase(More)
We have studied the effects of unilateral ventral medial pallidotomy in 26 patients with medically intractable Parkinson's disease with marked drug-induced dyskinesias. Preoperatively, all patients were assessed during one 5-day admission according to the Core Assessment Programme for Intracerebral Transplantation (CAPIT) protocol, including rating in the(More)
We used H2 15O positron emission tomography (PET) to investigate the effect of ethyl alcohol on regional cerebral blood flow in 6 patients with alcohol-responsive essential tremor and 6 age-matched control subjects. The patients were scanned while at rest and during involuntary postural tremor of the extended right arm. Normal control subjects were scanned(More)
Intrastriatal transplantation of dopaminergic neurones aims to repair the selective loss of nigrostriatal projections and the consequent dysfunction of striatocortical circuitries in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we have studied the effects of bilateral human embryonic dopaminergic grafts on the movement-related activation of frontal cortical areas in 4(More)
Epilepsy is primarily a clinical diagnosis and eye witness accounts are invaluable in the differential diagnosis of seizures, but may be incomplete or misleading. A hand held video camcorder was used in this study to record seizures of patients to clarify the nature of their attacks. The videotapes assisted the diagnosis of non-epileptic attacks in nine of(More)
It is unclear how the disordered activity of cells in the basal ganglia contributes to the symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). We recorded from single neurons extracellularly in 3 regions of the globus pallidus (GPe, GPie and GPii) in patients undergoing pallidotomy for PD. Movement-related cell firing patterns, analysed using hidden Markov models, were(More)
Positron emission tomography allows a quantitative assessment of the impact of functional neurosurgery in Parkinson's disease (PD) by measuring regional cerebral flow and glucose and oxygen consumption as indicators of metabolic activity of specific brain regions. PET can also be used to study the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system, and therefore serves as a(More)